Type: Articles

Materials to help you study and learn the basic of a wide variety of subject areas. These materials can also help you study for taking the G.E.D. examination.
  • A Healthy Diet for Babies and Young Children
    • The following six spots focus on different aspects of a healthy diet for young children. Spots 1 through 6 tell a story that unfolds over time, but each has a separate message. They can be used together in a series or they can stand alone.
  • A Kitchen Garden for the Family
    • It is true that many people do not have much land. But the plots on which their houses stand may have backyards which are often big enough and fertile enough for gardening. Even two or three square metres of soil wisely used can contribute rich vegetables to the family diet. These vegetables can have a great nutritional value for the family.
  • A Strategy for Revising: Concision, Precision, Revision
    • Professors who care about writing will always make a strong plea for concision, precision, and revision (CPR). After college, the probability that your writing will be read is inversely proportional to its length and clarity. In the workplace, good writers are rapidly noticed and usually land in management positions; in academia, good writers eventually earn publication, and the best of these writers actually gain a readership who follows their work.
  • Academic Writing
    • These OWL resources will help you with the types of writing you may encounter while in college. The OWL resources range from rhetorical approaches for writing, to document organization, to sentence level work, such as clarity, and forming logical arguments in your writing.
  • America's Story
    • The Library of Congress presents "America's Library" as a public service as part of its mission to provide as much access to its collections as possible. The Web site contains many documents, prints, photographs, maps, recordings and other materials from the past. Some of these materials reflect viewpoints or information that may seem insensitive today. Their content is not meant to offend; it does, however reflect history.
  • An Optical Illusion
    • Learn about optical illusions and how they relate to geometry.
  • APA Style
    • These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.
  • Aristotelophile Publications
    • Ancient philosophy publications; includes lectures, articles and books.
  • Aristotle, Zeno and the Stadium Paradox
    • A PDF of an 18 page volume written by Kevin Davey.
  • Astrobites
    • Astrobites is a daily astrophysical literature journal written by graduate students in astronomy since 2010. Our goal is to present one interesting paper per day in a brief format that is accessible to undergraduate students in the physical sciences who are interested in active research.
  • Automedian Triangles and Magic Squares
    • An "automedian triangle" is defined as one whose three medians are proportional to the three sides. Learn how to utilize this triangle.
  • Before You Start Writing That Paper... A Guide to Prewriting Techniques
    • Are you writing a paper and don't know where to start? Even with a clear prompt, a grasp on the material, and lots of ideas, getting started on any paper can be a challenge. All writers face the dilemma of looking at a blank computer screen without having any idea of how to translate their thoughts into a coherent and carefully articulated essay. You may know all about drafting and editing, but how do you get to that first draft? What comes between a blank computer screen and that polished final paper anyway?
  • Brainstorming
    • This handout discusses techniques that will help you start writing a paper and continue writing through the challenges of the revising process. Brainstorming can help you choose a topic, develop an approach to a topic, or deepen your understanding of the topic’s potential.
  • Browse the USGS Publications Warehouse
    • The Publications Warehouse collection is broken into several broad types. Nearly all publications are in the Article or Report types.
  • Calculus Calculators
    • Contains calculus calculators and tutorials, such as the product rule, quotient rule and chain rule tutorial.
  • Chicago Manual of Style
    • This section contains information on the Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September 2010.
  • Child Welfare
    • A page with links to documents regarding all topics child welfare; examples such as institutional analysis, alliance for race equity, and class action reform.
  • Children Need Vitamin A
    • The following script describes how mothers can help protect their young children from dangerous childhood illnesses caused by a lack of vitamin A. Children especially need vitamin A for their physical growth, for their eyesight, and to help their bodies resist infection and disease.
  • Chinese Mathematics
    • Even as mathematical developments in the ancient Greek world were beginning to falter during the final centuries BC, the burgeoning trade empire of China was leading Chinese mathematics to ever greater heights.
  • Circuit Court Rules
    • The rules below were extracted from the web sites of the various Federal Court of Appeals in August, 2002. Forthcoming and proposed rules were also reviewed, and to the best of this author's knowledge, no revisions are currently pending on these excerpts. This author can also find no discussion at all of affirmance without opinion in the Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure (FRAP). The FRAP apply to all circuits. Where little was lost in context, the rules discussing published versus unpublished opinions are not included.
  • Clarity and Style
    • Includes: Avoiding Cliches and Tired Phrases, Commonly Confused Words, Concise Writing: Using Lanham's Paramedic Method, Confusing Pronouns, Guidelines for Nonsexist Usage, In Over Your Head: the Pitfalls of Trying to Sound like a Professor, and Putting Voice into Writing by Krysti Sibley.
  • Climate Change Impacts
    • Climate change affects more than temperature. These changes are already having significant effects on fish, wildlife and plants here in the United States, necessitating new resource management approaches for climate adaptation.
  • Collecting Rocks
    • Learn how to identify types of rocks, tips on starting a collection, and more.
  • College Survival Guide/Improving Reading Skills
    • A portion of a book targeted towards bettering reader skills.
  • Commas: Quick Rules
    • This resource offers a number of tips about comma use.
  • Common Errors in English Usage
    • This list contains some of the most common mistakes made in the English language.
  • Common Writing Assignments
    • These OWL resources will help you understand and complete specific types of writing assignments, such as annotated bibliographies, book reports, and research papers.
  • Conducting Research
    • These OWL resources will help you conduct research using primary source methods, such as interviews and observations, and secondary source methods, such as books, journals, and the Internet. This area also includes materials on evaluating research sources.
  • Country Profiles
    • This series of profiles of foreign nations is part of the Country Studies Program, formerly the Army Area Handbook Program. The profiles offer brief, summarized information on a country’s historical background, geography, society, economy, transportation and telecommunications, government and politics, and national security.
  • Course in General Linguistics
    • Course in General Linguistics is an influential book compiled by Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye that is based on notes taken from Ferdinand de Saussure's lectures at the University of Geneva. It was published posthumously in 1916 and is generally regarded as the starting point of structural linguistics.
  • Creative Writing
    • These OWL resources will help you with the basics of creative writing. This section includes resources on writing poetry, fiction, and creative nonfiction.
  • Desert Landforms and Surface Processes in the Mojave National Preserve and Vicinity
    • This website is intended to provide basic geologic information about the origin of landscape features throughout the Mojave National Preserve and surrounding region.
  • Development Studies
    • Description of development studies, a multidisciplinary branch of social science.
  • Documentation
    • APA Style: Manuscript Format, In-Text Citations and Works Cited, Chicago/Turabian Style: In-Text and Bibliographic/Endnote Citations, MLA Style: In-Text Citations, MLA Style: Manuscript Format and Works Cited (from the Writing in , English WID handbook), and Preparing an Annotated Bibliography
  • Double Equations from Triangles in Squares
    • Learn how to complete double equations from triangles in squares.
  • Eat Garlic for Good Health
    • Garlic has been used as a medicine for thousands of years. And it's helping cure illness today. One of the best things about garlic is that it's cheap - you can even grow it yourself.
  • Editing a Draft
    • Includes: Avoiding Faculty "Pet Peeves" by Joe Essid, Concise Writing: Using Lanham's Paramedic Method, Editing Checklist, Reading Aloud: Catching Fossils and Flubs, Warning Signs of a Rushed Paper.
  • Educational Origami
    • Educational Origami is a blog and a wiki, about 21st Century Teaching and Learning. This wiki is not just about the integration of technology into the classroom, though this is certainly a critical area, it is about shifting our educational paradigm.
  • Egyptian Mathematics
    • It is thought that the Egyptians introduced the earliest fully-developed base 10 numeration system at least as early as 2700 BC (and probably much earlier).
  • EIA Energy Kids
    • Energy Kids (www.eia.gov/kids) is a student-friendly website hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The site includes a variety of information and activities about energy organized in several main categories: What is Energy?, Sources of Energy, Using & Saving Energy, History of Energy, Games and Activities, for Teachers, Related Links, Energy Calculators, and a Glossary. This teacher guide provides activities for using Energy Kids as a resource to teach students about energy in a fun and interactive way. Using Energy Kids provides students with the opportunity to learn about energy while improving research and reading skills.
  • ejournalist.com.au
    • This is the home page of eJournalist, which discusses issues in media and communication.
  • Eliminating Wordiness
    • A grouping of 3 different exercises to help you learn to eliminate wordiness when writing.
  • ESL Instructors, Tutors
    • These OWL resources will help ESL instructors and tutors develop curricula for teaching second language writing. This section includes resources on writing across the curriculum, writing in the disciplines, and it contains links to OWL workshops and exercises useful for ESL instruction.
  • Essay Writing
    • This resource begins with a general description of essay writing and moves to a discussion of common essay genres students may encounter across the curriculum. The four genres of essays (description, narration, exposition, and argumentation) are common paper assignments you may encounter in your writing classes.
  • Ethnography
    • Learn about ethnography, a qualitative methodology whereby the researcher seeks to understand a culture from the standpoint of a cultural insider, learning what it is truly like to exist within a particular framework of ideas, customs, taboos, religion, thoughts, and all of the institutions that come together to make culture.
  • Exercises
  • Federal Judicial Center
    • The Federal Judicial Center is the education and research agency for the federal courts. Congress created the FJC in 1967 to promote improvements in judicial administration in the courts of the United States. This site contains the results of Center research on federal court operations and procedures and court history, as well as selected educational materials.
  • First Drafts
    • This page has a list of resources for creating your first draft of your paper.
  • Fit Facts
    • Get the facts on popular health and fitness topics in a concise, one-page format. Our ACE Fit Facts contain valuable information on a wide range of subjects, from nutrition to exercising outdoors, strength training, exercising with diabetes, weight management, workplace wellness and more. Educate your co-workers or members at your health club with trusted, unbiased facts.
  • Flannery O'Connor
    • Flannery O'Connor: American writer, particularly acclaimed for her stories which combined comic with tragic and brutal.
  • Food is Medicine: HIV/AIDS and Nutrition
    • People living with HIV/AIDS need to be encouraged to eat enough of the right kinds of foods every day. Radio broadcasters can help by offering up-to-date information about diets and nutrition, and a place to talk with doctors, nurses and other medical professionals on this subject.
  • Garden on Your Rooftop
    • It's possible to harvest lots of fresh vegetables from a rooftop garden and deliver them directly to your kitchen table. Go up to your rooftop or out to your patio and look around.
  • Genocide Studies Program
    • Founded in January 1998 to expand the work begun in 1994 by Yale University’s Cambodian Genocide Program, the Genocide Studies Program at Yale’s MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies conducts research, seminars and conferences on comparative, interdisciplinary, and policy issues relating to the phenomenon of genocide, and has provided training to researchers from afflicted regions, including Cambodia, Rwanda, and East Timor. For more information about the program, please see the “About” page.
  • Geodisc Diophantine Boxes
    • Learn about rectangular solids with integer edge lengths such that all three geodesic distances between opposite vertices are also integers.
  • Geomagnetism Frequently Asked Questions
    • All about the earth's magnetic field, magnetic elements, and compasses.
  • Getting Started
    • This webpage has a list of resources for beginning the writing process, including brainstorming, creating outlines, confronting anxiety, and more.
  • Global Warming
    • I'm a scientist. I've been watching the scientific literature on global climate change for decades. And I testify that there is a genuine consensus in the worldwide scientific community, and there has been a consensus since about 2003.
  • Good Nutrition for the Whole Family: Radio Spots
    • Different family members have different nutritional needs. Everyone including men, women and children need to eat a variety of foods every day for good health.
  • Goodness and Nature: A Defense of Ethical Naturalism and a Critique of its Opponents
    • This PDF contains 5 chapters, covering Machiavelli, Bacon and Descartes, Hobbes and Locke, Hume and Rousseau, and Kant.
  • Grammar
    • These OWL resources will help you use correct grammar in your writing. This area includes resources on grammar topics, such as count and noncount nouns, articles (a versus an), subject-verb agreement, and prepositions in the English language.
  • Greek Mathematics
    • By the Hellenistic period, the Greeks had presided over one of the most dramatic and important revolutions in mathematical thought of all time.
  • Green Leafy Vegetables are Health Foods
    • The following messages about the nutritional value of dark green leafy vegetables are presented as radio spots. Radio spots are short messages that are meant to change people’s behaviour or actions. They usually last five seconds to two minutes.
  • Hack My Study
    • Hack My Study teaches the most effective study strategies and techniques including: speed reading, speed memorization, textbook note-taking, class note-taking, speed writing, speed typing, and time management.
  • Hellenistic Mathematics
    • By the 3rd Century BC, in the wake of the conquests of Alexander the Great, mathematical breakthroughs were also beginning to be made on the edges of the Greek Hellenistic empire.
  • History of Decimals and the Metric System
    • Learn about the history and evolution of decimals.
  • Homonyms
    • A list of homonyms in the English language and their meanings.
  • How Materials are Recycled
    • Different processes are used to recycle different materials. The processing steps required to recycle paper, plastic and aluminium cans are shown.
  • How Music Makes Sense
    • Music relies primarily on repetition to help it make sense to the listener. In popular music and children's songs, the repetition is often very literal and direct, making the music more immediately accessible. In art-music, the repetition is often varied and transformed. This makes the repetition flexible, capable of assuming of many forms and moods.
  • How to Avoid Plagiarism
    • Plagiarizing, or representing someone else's ideas as your own, will cause problems for people in any stage of life.
  • How to be a Better Reader
    • Discusses why reading is important and how to get better at it.
  • How to Begin Writing a Research Paper
    • Here are some easy, simple steps to follow that will get you started out on the right foot for a research paper.
  • How to Cite a Website
    • If you use information from a website for research, you'll need to cite it appropriately in your write-up. Here's how to do it.
  • How to Cite Sources in MLA Format
    • The Modern Language Association (MLA) has its own guidelines for citing sources, and you may be required to use them by your instructor or field.
  • How to Copyedit and Proofread Written Work
    • In order to make the process accessible to beginners, the activities involved in proofreading and correcting basic errors will be referred to as "copyediting." By the time you finish reading this, you should be able to perform basic copyediting tasks.
  • How to Correctly Use "Affect" and "Effect"
    • It's easy to learn the difference between these two words, and reading this article should help you avoid mistaking these.
  • How to Correctly Use "Assure", "Ensure", and "Insure"
    • This article may assure you of their proper usage, ensure that you know how to use them, and insure you against being accused of poor grammar.
  • How to Correctly Use "Than" and "Then"
    • It is important to know in which situations to choose each word. Follow this guide below, and then you'll be using these words better than anyone you know!
  • How to Correctly Use "There", "Their", and "They're"
    • Each spelling means a very different thing; if you'd like to learn the difference, read on.
  • How to Correctly Use "Too" and "To"
    • A common mistake, the use of "to" or "too" is very easy to differentiate between and once you know how to tell, you can teach others how to get it right too!
  • How to Correctly Use "You're" and "Your"
    • Mistaking "you're" for "your" - or vice versa - is a common writing error most people have made at least once. Here's how to know which one to use.
  • How to Do Endnotes
    • Though many research papers rely on in-text citations and works cited pages, some disciplines still prefer you to use endnotes to reference your sources. Learning how to do endnotes will help you point your readers to the sources you used.
  • How to Do Works Cited
    • Schools and institutions have developed formal styles for all sorts of citations, from books to Internet sites and verbal interviews. For those who need to do works cited as part of a paper or project, some basic steps can help achieve this goal successfully.
  • How to Edit or Proofread an Essay or Paper
    • Editing papers and essays can be a daunting task. With these steps, a clearer and well-written piece can be formed.
  • How to Get Motivated to Study
    • These ideas will help you get motivated to study.
  • How to Identify Parts of Speech
    • Every word in the English language functions as at least one part of speech; many words can serve, at different times, as two or more parts of speech, depending on the context.
  • How to Improve Your Concentration
    • Follow these 9 steps to help improve your concentration.
  • How to Improve Your English Writing
    • This page discusses ways in which an English learner can best improve their writing skills.
  • How to Organize Notes
    • Organized notes can be very handy to use to study for exams or compose a well-written paper.
  • How to Quote in a Research Paper
    • A research paper can be made stronger through the use of direct quotations when you need to cite a key piece of primary source material, strengthen your argument through another writer's work made in particularly good terms, or highlight a term of art.
  • How to Read Faster
    • Ever wanted to read faster? Read the following steps to learn how.
  • How to Take Book Notes
    • In many University classes, taking book notes often marks the difference between an A and a B course grade for a normally good to average student. If you tend not to be organized, the following suggestions concerning book notes are matters of personal preference yet should prove helpful.
  • How to Take Lecture Notes
    • Instructions and tips on how to take effective lecture notes.
  • How to Take Notes
    • Follow these steps to take good notes.
  • How to Use "Etc." Correctly
    • The use of et cetera isn't usually taught in schools or tutoring because it's considered to be just an abbreviation. Regardless, it's important to know how to use it properly, so here's how to do so.
  • How to Use English Punctuation Correctly
    • All about the fundamental aspects of English punctuation.
  • How to Use Internal Citations
    • Citing your research is an important part of any paper or project. Even though you provide a list of sources at the end of your paper, you also need to understand how to use internal citations when you are referring specifically to someone else's work.
  • How to Use Italics
    • A quick and easy guide on when and how to use italics.
  • How to Write a Persuasive Essay
    • Whether for school or persuading your boss for that extra raise, everyone needs and should know how to write a persuasive essay.
  • How to Write a Philosophy Paper
    • Here are some suggestions to guide your efforts when compiling a philosophy paper.
  • How to Write a Research Paper
    • There are two main types of research papers--argumentative research papers and analytical research papers. The process of researching and writing both types is the same, just with a different goal.
  • How to Write a Scientific Paper
    • Scientific papers are written in a specific format, and it is both easy and necessary to learn how to write them well.
  • How to Write a Term Paper
    • Follow these steps to take your term papers to the head of the class.
  • How to Write a Thesis Statement
    • An effective thesis statement states the purpose of the paper and therefore functions to control, assert, and structure your argument. Without a sound thesis, your argument may be weak, lack in direction, and appear uninteresting to the reader.
  • How to Write an Analytical Essay
    • An analytical essay is an essay that presents factual information about an objective topic, such as when comparing main ideas between 2 topics. Here's how to put together your ideas into a coherent analytical essay.
  • How to Write an APA Style Bibliography
    • A bibliography provides an alphabetized list of all of the sources used to create an article, and it is a necessary component of any piece of research or writing. Here's how to compile an APA-style bibliography.
  • How to Write an Outline
    • An outline is a great way to organize your thoughts and research if you’re preparing a speech, an essay, a novel, or even a study guide.
  • Hydrology
    • Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
  • Indian Mathematics
    • Mantras from the early Vedic period (before 1000 BC) invoke powers of ten from a hundred all the way up to a trillion, and provide evidence of the use of arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, fractions, squares, cubes and roots.
  • Internet History Sourcebooks
    • The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts covering Ancient History, Medieval History, and Modern History. Also includes detailed, thematically based subsets of texts, with some additional documents and links, of the three main Sourcebooks listed above: African, Eastern Asian, Global, Indian, Jewish, Islamic, Lesbian/Gay, Science and Women; and Special Resources on Byzantium, Medieval, Saints' Lives, and Ancient and Medieval Law.
  • Introduction to Anders Zorn
    • This is an article as opposed to tutorial, written by Swedish artist Mattias Viinanen and edited by myself. It looks briefly at the life of the great Swedish oil painting master, Anders Zorn.
  • Introduction to Bamboo
    • Learn about bamboo taxonomy, as well as planting and care.
  • Introduction to Sociology
    • This text meets standard scope and sequence requirements and incorporates current events such as the Occupy Wall Street movement. The text is designed for the Introduction to Sociology course at any two- to four-year school.
  • Iodine: The Hidden Hunger
    • Iodine deficiency or a lack of iodine causes a swelling called a goiter. People who don't get enough iodine in their diet can develop other problems too. Iodine deficiency has been called the silent hunger because we do not crave it although our bodies must have it.
  • Iron Supplementation of Young Children in Regions Where Malaria Transmission is Intense
    • Although the benefits of iron supplementation have generally been considered to outweigh the putative risks, there is some evidence to suggest that supplementation at levels recommended for otherwise healthy children carries the risk of increased severity of infectious disease in the presence of malaria and/or undernutrition.
  • Is the Computer Appropriate for Teaching Physics?
    • Describes one persons journey through finding the best practices in using computers to teach physics at the college level.
  • Islamic Mathematics
    • The Islamic Empire established across Persia, the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, Iberia and parts of India from the 8th Century onwards made significant contributions towards mathematics.
  • J.D. Salinger
    • Summary of Salinger's life and work
  • Journalism and Journalistic Writing
    • These OWL resources introduce the basic concepts of journalistic writing. This area includes resources on the Associated Press style of format and writing, as well as resources on how to organize journalistic writing.
  • Judicial Administration and Organization
    • Explore more about the Federal Judicial Circuits here.
  • Keeping Food Safe: Part One
    • The people who buy food at these stalls or restaurants need to know that their food is safe. This is an important concern for you as a food seller. If you serve food that is spoiled, your customers could get sick, or even die. Food sellers themselves can get sick or die if they eat spoiled food. And your business could suffer.
  • Keeping Food Safe: Part Two
    • Today, we will talk about some other things that food sellers can do to keep their food safe and stop it from spoiling. You can kill the microbes and enzymes that cause food to spoil if you cook food at a high temperature. So, follow this rule: always cook foods until every part is thoroughly hot. Heat liquids until they boil before you serve them.
  • Landscape Conservation Cooperatives
    • One of the strengths of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is our technical excellence in planning and delivering conservation. Whether on a National Wildlife Refuge, at a National Fish Hatchery, or on some other public or private land, the plans and projects we deliver are widely acclaimed for their quality and effectiveness in addressing conservation challenges.
  • Learning Math With Geocaching
    • Geocache comes from the terms geo (earth) and cache (hidden supply or treasure). Geocaches are usually small trinkets or clues in waterproof containers with the cache's geographic coordinates. This article provides reasons it may assist with learning math.
  • Linguistic Relativity
    • The principle of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects the ways in which its speakers conceptualize their world, i.e. their world view, or otherwise influences their cognitive processes.
  • Linguistics
    • Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. Linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or subfields of study: language form, language meaning, and language in context.
  • List of Important Mathematicians
    • This is a chronological list of some of the most important mathematicians in history and their major achievments, as well as some very early achievements in mathematics for which individual contributions can not be acknowledged.
  • Magnetic Monitoring of Earth and Space
    • With data provided by magnetic observatories, geophysicists can gain insights into our planet’s interior and nearby space environment without even leaving the ground.
  • Mayan Mathematics
    • The Mayan and other Mesoamerican cultures used a vigesimal number system based on base 20 (and, to some extent, base 5), probably originally developed from counting on fingers and toes.
  • Mechanics
    • These OWL resources will help you with sentence level organization and style. This area includes resources on writing issues, such as active and passive voice, parallel sentence structure, parts of speech, and transitions in the English language.
  • Medical Writing
    • These OWL resources will help you write in medical and/or scientific contexts. This section includes original research articles and samples of the medical writing produced for a more general, lay-population audience.
  • Minerals and Materials in the 20th Century: A Review
    • The period from 1900 to 2000 was marked by significant changes in the various industries that consume metals and industrial minerals and by major historic events that affected the way minerals are produced and used. This chapter is an overview of some of those changes.
  • MLA Style
    • These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the Works Cited page, as well as MLA sample papers, slide presentations, and the MLA classroom poster.
  • Motivation Tips
    • Lasting motivation is possible, but you must first adopt an outlook that allows you to be successful! Here are 15 tips to help.
  • Nutrition - Advice to an Expectant Mother
    • A good diet – both for expectant mothers and their children – is essential for healthy children. This drama explains why, and gives some suggestions for a nutritious diet.
  • Nutrition and Health: Story Ideas for the Radio
    • There are limitless programming possibilities on the topic of nutrition and health. Following are some examples of issues rural people should consider as they plan and prepare healthy meals for their families.
  • Online Writing Support
    • This website prepares students to understand grammar and gives exercises for practice.
  • Opuscula: Short Texts of the Middle Ages and Renaissance
    • Opuscula: Short Texts of the Middle Ages and Renaissance is a peer-reviewed, on-line journal/text series published by Classical, Medieval and Renaissance Studies at the University of Saskatchewan, specializing in short texts of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. The journal includes a broad range of pre-modern texts including but not limited to literary and philosophical works, letters, charters, court documents, and notebooks.
  • Overview of the History of Mathematics
    • An overview of the history of mathematics.
  • PACTISS: Philosophers And Critical Thinkers in Senior Schools
    • A database of philosophy and critical thinking resources.
  • Paper Polyhedron Plans
    • Basic shapes that can be cut out and put together to make all kinds of polyhedra.
  • Parts of Speech
  • Pathways to Outcomes
    • Explore the Pathways to Outcomes for a uniquely broad, deep, and coherent collection of findings about what it takes to improve the lives of children and families living in America's tough neighborhoods.
  • Phonetics
    • The following are some of the signs of the American phonetic system. When used for transcription, sounds are put inside square brackets, ie [ ]. Related and similar sounds in a language often occur in complementary distribution, that is, each of these sounds appear only in unique situations.
  • Platonic Solids Origami
    • Step-by-step instructions to make origami shapes.
  • Plato's Laws in the Hands of Aristotle
    • In his criticisms of Plato’s Laws Aristotle says that the regime is oligarchical while the Athenian Stranger says it is a combination of Democracy and Monarchy. Who is right?
  • Prehistoric Mathematics
    • Our prehistoric ancestors had a general sensibility about numbers and amounts of things.
  • Prevent Blindness with Vitamin A
    • If your children are having trouble seeing, you probably want to put something special over their eyes _ a pair of eyeglasses. But for a common kind of vision problem, the kind that starts when a child has trouble seeing in dim light, you should put something special in their stomachs.
  • Preventing Plagiarism
    • These OWL resources contain lesson plans and activities to help teachers instruct students on how to understand and avoid plagiarism. Activities in the "Avoiding Plagiarism" section ask students to differentiate among summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting and use MLA and APA in-text citations appropriately.
  • Preventing Water Pollution
    • Explore the 3 tabs under the prevention of water pollution, including what you can do, laws and conventions, and agencies and organizations.
  • Principles for Writing More Clearly
    • An important component of “good writing” is that readers can easily understand it. The Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology has compiled research-based principles that writers can follow to make text easier to understand, and this article explores these principles for writing more clearly.
  • Professional, Technical Writing
    • These OWL resources will help you conduct research and compose documents for the workplace, such as memoranda and business letters. This section also includes resources for writing report and scientific abstracts.
  • Proofreading
    • Proofreading can be a difficult process, especially when you’re not sure where to start or what this process entails. Think of proofreading as a process of looking for any inconsistencies and grammatical errors as well as style and spelling issues. Below are a few general strategies that can help you get started.
  • Proofreading
    • Proofreading is the final stage of the writing process when the paper is evaluated for mechanical correctness, such as grammar, punctuation, spelling, omitted words, repeated words, spacing and format, and typographical errors. You should proofread only after you have finished all of your other revisions and editing.
  • Psychologist
    • A psychologist is a professional or academic title used by individuals who are either: linical, counseling, and school psychologists, organizational psychologists, or academics conducting psychological research or teaching psychology in a college or university.
  • Public Policy
    • A page with links to documents regarding various policy matters.
  • Punctuation
  • Punctuation
    • For TIP Sheets on rules of punctuation, please select any topic from the list on the left. Click once and that page will open.
  • Punctuation
    • Includes: Apostrophes, Possessives, and Contractions, Commas, Other Punctuation: Colons, Parentheses, Ellipses., Quotation Marks, Semicolons by Liz Atkins, and Titles: Underline, Italics, or Quotations?
  • Punctuation
    • These OWL resources will help you with punctuation, such as using commas, quotation marks, apostrophes, and hyphens in the English language.
  • Punctuation in Sentences
    • This resource should help to clarify when and how to use various marks of punctuation in the English language.
  • Punctuation Overview
    • This resource should help to clarify when and how to use various marks of punctuation in the English language.
  • Punctuation, Mechanics, Capitalization, and Spelling
    • This chapter is about habit. As Samuel Beckett once noted, "Habit is the ballast that chains the dog to his vomit.” It is amazing how consistently we repeat the exact same little errors out of mere habit. However, we can tackle these habits by identifying them as patterns and writing with an eye for them. As a graduate student, I once misspelled the word "separate” (using an "e” in the middle) 16 times on an exam. My professor circled the offending letter each time and glibly noted, "I wish you could spell better.” His chiding cured me, and (knock wood) I have not misspelled "separate” since. Many students find that they have picked up the habit of putting commas in automatically before prepositions or even after conjunctions rather than before. Once such habits are identified, however, they can be addressed effectively.
  • Purdue Online Writing Lab
    • The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional materials. Users worldwide will find information to assist them with many writing projects, during any stage of the writing process. Teachers and trainers may use these materials for in-class and out-of-class instruction.
  • Reading Aloud
    • This handout explains some of the benefits of hearing your writing read aloud. It offers tips on reading your draft yourself, asking a friend to read it to you, or having it read by a text-to-speech program or app.
  • Reading Better and Faster
    • For most people, it is easy to learn to read faster. Your reading rate is often just a matter of habit. But to begin, you may need to try to change some habits and try these tips presented in this article.
  • Reading Strategies
    • As part of this class, I will be teaching students strategies for reading in any content such as science or social studies as well as novels and literature.
  • Reasoning with Mathematicians
    • What Theaetetus tells us about Forms in Plato’s Theaetetus
  • Recycling is Important
    • Recycling is one of the best ways for you to have a positive impact on the world in which we live. Recycling is important to both the natural environment and us. We must act fast as the amount of waste we create is increasing all the time.
  • Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
    • Learn the three R's to recycling: reduce, reuse, and recycle.
  • Revising and Editing
    • It can be helpful to use the Writing Center in the initial stages of writing a paper, such as for generation of ideas (brainstorming), research guidance, and overall organization. After your first draft is complete, then begin the process of revising and editing. Your very last step is proofreading (See TIP Sheet: Proofreading).
  • Revising Drafts
    • This handout will motivate you to revise your drafts and give you strategies to revise effectively.
  • Ringing of the Changes (The Shape of 4)
    • Learn about the ringing of the changes, also known as the shape of 4.
  • Searching the World Wide Web: Overview
    • Overview of searching the web, using search engines, web directories, and other search strategies.
  • Self-Teaching Units
  • Sentence Patterns
    • This handout gives an overview of English sentence patterns. It will help you identify subjects, verbs, and clause connectors so you can analyze your writing style and improve it by using a variety of sentence patterns.
  • Sentence Structure
  • Sentence Structure and Mechanics
    • Includes lessons in: Abbreviations, Agreement: Nouns and Pronouns, Agreement: Subject and Verb, Capitalization, Complete Sentences vs. Fragments, Run-on Sentences Misplaced Modifiers: The funniest errors in the world, Titles: Underline or Quotations?, Using Articles: A, An, The, Using Numbers and Numerals by Amy Addison, and Writing About Events in Books: Past Tense? Present?
  • Smallest Quad with Integer Sides, Perpendicular Diags
    • What is the area of the smallest quadrilateral whose sides are all different integers and whose diagonals are perpendicular?
  • Social Policy
    • Social policy refers to guidelines, principles, legislation and activities that affect the living conditions conducive to human welfare.
  • Social Policy: Organizing for Social and Economic Justice
    • For over 30 years, Social Policy has served as key site for intellectual exchange among progressive academics and activists from across the United States and beyond. Now published by The Labor Neighbor Research and Training Center in cooperation with the Organizers’ Forum, it reports on and analyzes contemporary movements for social change in the workplace, the community, and the world. Social Policy seeks to inform and report on the work of labor and community organizers who build union and constituency-based groups, run campaigns, and build movements for social justice, economic equality, and democratic participation in the U.S. and around the world.
  • Spelling: Common Words That Sound Alike
    • This resource covers common spelling errors including accept/except, ei/ie, noun plurals, and –ible/able.
  • Statistics
    • Wikipedia's explanation of statistics: the study of the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.
  • Study and Success Strategies
    • CalREN Project: Study Tips
  • Style
    • This handout will help you recognize potential problems in your writing style and learn to correct them.
  • Teaching and Learning Inquiry
    • Teaching and Learning Inquiry (TLI) features original research, theory, and commentary on the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL). The journal publishes articles from all disciplines, research traditions, and perspectives related to teaching and learning.
  • Teaching Resources
    • These OWL resources will help instructors use multi-media tools to teach writing. This area includes links to the OWL Podcasts, the OWL Writing Exercises, and the index pages for OWL slide presentations and workshops on writing.
  • The Advantages of Growing and Using Finger Millet
    • Finger millet is a staple crop in many communities. It is a source of good, healthy food during difficult times, such as drought or crop failure. It’s relatively cheap and easy to grow and stores well for years.
  • The Causes of Water Pollution
    • Fun facts on how such topics as global warming, industrial waste, and marine dumping affect our planet.
  • The Comeback of Quinoa
    • Quinoa is an ancient food crop of the Inca civilization that lived in the Andes mountains of South America three hundred years ago. In the Andes today, many farmers still grow quinoa because it is nutritious and tolerates harsh growing conditions.
  • The Eight Parts of Speech
    • There are eight parts of speech in the English language: noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. The part of speech indicates how the word functions in meaning as well as grammatically within the sentence. An individual word can function as more than one part of speech when used in different circumstances. Understanding parts of speech is essential for determining the correct definition of a word when using the dictionary.
  • The Fibonacci Sequence For Visual Layout
    • The Fibonacci Sequence is a numerical convention that can be translated into many forms. It has been used in mathematics, architecture, poetry, music, art, and even as a system for predicting the growth of the stock market. It was developed by a man named Leonardo of Pisa.
  • The Five Regular Solids
    • Divide the surface of a sphere into congruent regular spherical polygons.
  • The Library of Congress Civil War
    • Article about civil war era mapping.
  • The Ultimate Guide to Conquering Distractions
    • Looking to go back to school but feeling nervous? Maybe you don't consider yourself the best student or you think there is just too much going on in your life to fit in college classes. We are hear to help you out! This guide was developed to help all aspiring students with finding a program that will keep their interests, setting goals, and graduating top of their class.
  • The Vegetarian Solution to Water Pollution
    • This article discusses the many ways a vegetarian diet impacts the Earth's natural resource of water.
  • The Writing Process
    • These OWL resources will help you with the writing process: pre-writing (invention), developing research questions and outlines, composing thesis statements, and proofreading.
  • Theories of Self Development
    • When we are born, we have a genetic makeup and biological traits. However, who we are as human beings develops through social interaction. Many scholars, both in the fields of psychology and in sociology, have described the process of self development as a precursor to understanding how that “self” becomes socialized.
  • Treating Water Pollution
    • Explore the 4 treatment methods of water pollution: industrial treatment, denitrification, septic tanks, and ozone wastewater treatment.
  • Types of Water Pollution
    • Water pollution can come from a number of different sources. If the pollution comes from a single source, such as an oil spill, it is called point-source pollution. If the pollution comes from many sources, it is called nonpoint-source pollution.
  • UNC Writing Center - Tips and Tools
    • Includes many resources for: Writing the Paper, Citation, Style, and Sentence Level Concerns., Specific Writing Assignments or Contexts, and Writing for Specific Fields.
  • Using Research
    • These OWL resources will help you use the research you have conducted in your documents. This area includes material on quoting and paraphrasing your research sources, as well as material on how to avoid plagiarism.
  • Using Sources
    • Includes lessons in: Introduction to Using Source Materials, Effective Direct Quotations, Creative Use of Sources by Heather Logan, Incorporating Quotations, Quotation Marks, Sources: Past Tense? Present? by Melanie Dawson and Joe Essid, Titles: Underline or Quotations?, and Using Paraphrases.
  • Using Sources
    • So how do you address this issue of effectively using and documenting sources, whether internet or print resources? The answer lies in applying professional standards to your work, recognizing how your research and writing process inform the product you produce, understanding how the modern library is best used, and mastering the mechanics of citation. The issue of mechanics—citing your sources properly, especially on your references page—remains a challenge for many writers, and the question of exactly how to cite web sources makes things even murkier. With various citation styles available and URLs that are longer than the alphabet, what is a writer to do? The material in this chapter will help you to address these issues and provide you with resources where you can track down more information. Whatever your writing process, even if you are in the habit of resorting to the "patch and pray" method, my aim is to help you approach the writing process professionally, begin to understand how to assess the quality of all of your sources, whether print- or web-based, and clarify the mechanics of citation. So press on, and recognize that your facility at using resources highly influences your reader’s perception of your work.
  • Victorian Art
    • Collection of several types of art from the Victorian Times.
  • Victorian Philosophy
    • An overview of the different philosophies of the victorian times.
  • Visual Rhetoric
    • These OWL resources will help you understand and work with rhetorical theories regarding visual and graphical displays of information. This area includes resources on analyzing and producing visual rhetoric, working with colors, and designing effective slide presentations.
  • Water Pollution in the Home
    • Water pollution can cause many problems within and around the home. Common problems often occur with drinking water, pond water and swimming pool water.
  • Water Treatment Processes
    • This page discusses different methods to treat your water, including biological, chemical, and physical methods, as well as filtration and disinfection.
  • Weathering and Erosion in Desert Environments
    • Through time, erosion progressively carves canyons into mountainous areas. Mountain stream channels are self-perpetuating; as water gathers into rills and channels, the greater the flow, the greater the erosive force. Learn more about weathering and erosion in desert climates.
  • What is Anthropology?
    • What does it mean to be human? How did we come to be the way we are? To answer these questions, anthropologists undertake scientific comparative studies to determine how peoples of the world are similar and how they are different.
  • What is Social Policy?
    • Article describing social policy as the study of human well-being.
  • What is Sociology?
    • Sociology is about the study of the world that you create through your actions, interactions, and complicit agreement with the “rules” of the world.
  • What is the Electoral College?
    • The Electoral College is a process, not a place. The founding fathers established it in the Constitution as a compromise between election of the President by a vote in Congress and election of the President by a popular vote of qualified citizens.
  • When Sources Must Be Cited (Checklist)
    • A useful page describing information that always must be cited.
  • Why Are Planets Round?
    • Why is the Earth round? In science fiction, there are sometimes planets that are shown as having points or corners. Is that possible?
  • Why Recycle?
    • Explore the three tabs to learn why you should recycle: facts, importance, and targets.
  • William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
    • A brief biography of English playwright William Shakespeare
  • Writing Anxiety
    • This handout discusses the situational nature of writer’s block and other writing anxiety and suggests things you can try to feel more confident and optimistic about yourself as a writer.
  • Writing for a Chinese Business Audience
    • This provides examples and information on writing in English for both domestic and international audiences doing business in China. It includes information on letters and memos, as well as important stylistic considerations.
  • Writing for a North American Business Audience
    • This provides examples and information (written for non-North Americans) on how to write for a business audience. It includes information on getting to the point, keeping it simple, active and passive voice, nondiscriminatory language, and verb overgeneralizing.
  • Writing for an Indian Business Audience
    • This provides examples and information on writing for both domestic and international audiences doing business in India. It includes information on letters and memos, as well as important stylistic considerations. The handout concludes with the status of English in business writing compared with native Indian languages, such as Hindi and Bengali.
  • Writing in Engineering
    • These OWL resources will help you write in a wide range of engineering fields, such as civil and computer engineering. This section contains resources on conducting research, working in teams, writing reports and journal articles, as well as presenting research.
  • Writing in Literature
    • These OWL resources will help you write about literature and poetry. This section contains resources on literary terms, literary theory and schools of criticism, as well as resources on writing book reviews.
  • Writing in Nursing
    • These resources will help you write as a nursing student, and they will help you write as a professional nurse. Resources contained in this section will also help you find other OWL materials that will help you complete the types of writing required for nursing.
  • Writing in the Social Sciences
    • These OWL resources will help you write in some of the social sciences, such as social work and psychology.
  • Writing Instructors
    • These OWL resources will help instructors develop curricula for teaching a wide range of writing. This area includes resources on teaching writing across the curriculum and teaching writing in the disciplines, as well as an index of slide presentations on teaching writing. This area also includes a link to the OWL Exercises.
  • Writing Task OWL Resource List
    • What kind of writing task do you need to complete? The list below will help you pinpoint the OWL’s resources that will be most helpful for you according to the kind of writing you need to accomplish.
  • Writing Tutors
    • These resources will help writing consultants develop strategies for tutoring a wide range of writing. This area includes resources on how to run a writing conference and how to tutor students in job search documents and creative writing. This area also includes an index of slide presentations on teaching writing.
  • www.nizkor.org
    • Dedicated to 12 million Holocaust victims who suffered and died at the hands of Adolf Hitler and his Nazi regime.