Type: Articles

This Religious Studies Portal highlights religions, philosophies, worldviews and traditions from around the world and throughout time.
  • "No Other Name": A Middle Knowledge Perspective on the Exclusivity of Salvation Through Christ
    • This article outlines middle knowledge and the problem of evil, written from a Christian viewpoint. Middle knowledge, or knowledge of counterfactuals, is the idea that a god can know that "X would be the case, if Y were the case."
  • “Theory” in Theory and Practice
    • Overcoming obstacles to evolution education
  • 10 Bulls
    • This delightful Zen Buddhist wood print reflects on the stages of personal growth and discovery that we experience as we impart upon the journey of self-awareness.
  • 1994 to 2010: The Rise in Islamophobia: Hate Speech & Violence Against Muslims
    • Articles on attacks against Islam and Muslims.
  • 200 Short Questions & Answers: Part I
    • by Ervad Ratanshah R. Motafram. Part 1 consists of questions 1-100 about Zoroastrianism.
  • 200 Short Questions & Answers: Part II
    • by Ervad Ratanshah R. Motafram. Part 2 consists of questions 101-200 about Zoroastrianism.
  • A Perspective on Clergy Sexual Abuse
    • By Dr. Thomas Plante. An article on the events regarding child sexual abuse committed by Catholic priests.
  • A Quaker Understanding of Jesus Christ
    • An article about what early Friends (Quakers) believed about Jesus.
  • A Rational History of Christianity
    • From Shattering the Sacred Myths: Christianity's rise to power followed by Europe's descent into a dark age.
  • A Rational History of Islam
    • From Shattering the Sacred Myths: Muhammed’s life story and a summary of what he believed. Details the spread of Islam through conquest.
  • A Three-Pronged Defense of Salvific Exclusivism in a World of Religions
    • The author defines and examines the basic arguments behind the classical approaches to other religions, exclusivism, inclusivism, and pluralism. Of primary interest are the validity of inherent "truth claims" in each religion. He concludes that, within a Christian paradigm, a re-defined exclusivisism meets an established philosophical, biblical, and ethical criteria, thus providing reasonability and warrant.
  • Aboriginal Art and Artists
    • Discusses the history of Australian Aboriginal art and the variety of formats that have been produced throughout the centuries. Includes biographies of Aboriginal artists, descriptions of traditional and rock art styles, and treatises on art and Aboriginal society and contemporary Aboriginal art.
  • Aboriginal Art: Land and Cultures
    • Topics include: Art, Land and the Dreaming; Traditional Symbols; Contemporary Aboriginal culture and society; Aboriginal languages; Aboriginal music; and the Prehistory of Australia.
  • Aboriginal Art: Methods and Materials
    • Covers a variety of traditional and contemporary methods used in the creation of Aboriginal art works. Includes discussions on types of paint and paper and the creation of contemporary prints.
  • Aboriginal Art: Regions and Communities
    • Discusses the main regions of Australia where Aboriginal artists have lived and are currently working, and describes the variations in style, symbols and materials used in the production of art in different regions of Australia.
  • About Jehovah's Witnesses (WTS)
    • Jehovah's Witnesses are a Christian denomination that is distinct from mainstream Christianity, best known for their door-to-door evangelism.
  • About the Church of Scientology
    • The Scientology religion is an expanding new religion, founded by American L. Ron Hubbard. The word Scientology means the study of knowledge or truth and addresses the rehabilitation and salvation of the human spirit.
  • Academic Writing
    • These OWL resources will help you with the types of writing you may encounter while in college. The OWL resources range from rhetorical approaches for writing, to document organization, to sentence level work, such as clarity, and forming logical arguments in your writing.
  • African Diaspora
    • Wikipedia's page on the African Diaspora: The African diaspora was the movement of Africans and their descendants to places throughout the world – predominantly to the Americas, then later to Europe, the Middle East and other places around the globe.
  • Agnostics and Agnosticism: Uncertainty About Whether God Exists
    • Topics include: history, definitions, quotations, and famous agnostics
  • Agnoticism
    • Wikipedia's page on agnosticism.
  • Albert Einstein's Religious Views
    • Covering the areas of: theological determinism, agnosticism, disbelief in a personal god, three styles of religious belief, humanism and ethical culture, enlightenment and liberation, Jews, Christianity, and Jesus, Pope Pius XII and the Catholic Church
  • All Major Groups and Religious Movements List
    • comparative articles from a mainstream Christian perspective
  • Am I good enough to go to Heaven?
    • Of all the questions you will ask yourself in life, probably the most important is, “Am I good enough to go to Heaven?” The way to find this out is to ask yourself if you have obeyed the Ten Commandments (listed below). Most would answer the question, “Well, I’ve broken one or two, but nothing too serious, like murder, etc.”
  • Amida and Christ: Buddhism and Christianity
    • Amida, the Buddha of Pure Land Buddhism, can be compared and contrasted to Jesus, the god of Christianity. Written from a Christian perspective.
  • Amish
    • Encyclopedia of Selected Peaceful Societies
  • Amphibious Gods
    • Water is a reference to the flow of the collective unconsciousness - that which creates realities in which we learn through experience and emotions. Gods and goddesses in many religions are associated with water.
  • An Introduction to Buddhism
    • Introductory materials on Buddhism, including the sutras, meditations, history, prayers, and basic teachings.
  • An Overview of the Persecution of Jews for the Past 2,000 Years
    • Topics include Anti-Judaism and Anti-Semitism
  • Anabaptism
    • "Anabaptist" is actually a Greek word meaning "rebaptizer," used in church Latin from the 4th century onward, and appearing at least as early as 1532 in the English, seldom used in 16th-century German or Dutch, where the translation Wiedertäufer and Wederdooper is used from the beginning of Anabaptist history in 1525. It was never used by the Anabaptists themselves but often vigorously objected to by them because of the opprobrium and criminal character attached to the name.
  • Analysis of Ancient Beliefs
    • From Shattering the Sacred Myths: Outlines the historical patterns behind the formation of the traditional religions.
  • Anapana Sati: Meditation on Breathing
    • Anapana sati, the meditation on in-and-out breathing, is the first subject of meditation expounded by the Buddha in the Maha-satipatthana Sutta, the Great Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness. The Buddha laid special stress on this meditation, for it is the gateway to enlightenment and Nibbana adopted by all the Buddhas of the past as the very basis for their attainment of Buddhahood.
  • Ancient Astronauts
    • The term 'Ancient Astronauts' generally refers to extraterrestrials who came to Earth and were in some way responsible for seeding the human race. There are references to these entities in the bible, in ancient art and other texts. They are all linked with myths about creation found in all ancient civilizations.
  • Ancient Egypt
    • Information on many aspects of ancient Egyptian life.
  • Ancient Egyptian Religion
    • Wikipedia's page on Ancient Egyptian Religion.
  • Ancient Egyptian Symbols
    • Pictures and descriptions of many Egyptian symbols.
  • Ancient Greek Philosophy
    • From Shattering the Sacred Myths: The history of Greek and Roman philosophy leading up to the rise of Christianity.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses
    • This website offers information about the fifty most important gods and goddesses and provides starting points for further research.
  • Angele Dei
    • Angele Dei, also know as the Prayer to One's Guardian Angel, was in the past attributed to St. Anselm (c1033-1109), for it appears in medieval collections of St. Anselm's works. However, it is clear that this prayer was added to Anselm's works sometime after his death.
  • Angels
    • Angels are usually viewed as emanations of a supreme divine being, sent to do the tasks of that being. Traditions vary as to whether angels have free will or are merely extensions of the supreme being's will. While the appearance of angels also varies, many views of angels give them a human shape.
  • Answers to "Do you know the basics of the Christian faith?"
    • You don't need to have the scripture verses memorized, and this list isn't authoritative. So, if you don't know everything, that's alright. But, these are the basics in Christianity and Christians should, at the very least, be familiar with them.
  • Antitrinitarianism
    • This article was written in the early 1950s. Read the article within that context.
  • Apocalypticism in American Culture
    • By Randall Balmer. Americans have long evinced a fascination with the end of time and the role that they would play in such an apocalypse.
  • Apocrypha
    • The Anabaptists, and following them the Mennonites, of all countries in general followed the Reformers and the Protestant churches in denying divine inspiration and authoritative character to the Old Testament Apocrypha. Certain books, particularly Sirach, Tobit and the Wisdom of Solomon, were highly esteemed however, and Neff claims that Hans Denck cites them, particularly Sirach, as equal in authority with the Old Testament books.
  • Apocrypha
    • The scope of this article takes in those compositions which profess to have been written either by Biblical personages or men in intimate relations with them. Such known works as the Shepherd of Hermas, the Epistle of Barnabas, the Didache (Teaching) of the Twelve Apostles, and the Apostolic Canons and Constitutions, though formerly apocryphal, really belong to patristic literature, and are considered independently.
  • Apocrypha
    • The term apocrypha is used with various meanings, including "hidden", "esoteric", "spurious", "of questionable authenticity", and "Christian texts that are not canonical".
  • Apologetics
    • Apologetics is the discipline of defending a position (usually religious) through the systematic use of reason. Early Christian writers (c. 120-220) who defended their faith against critics and recommended their faith to outsiders were called apologists.
  • Apostles' Creed
    • Information about the Apostles' Creed from a Catholic perspective.
  • Appalling Acts in God's Name
    • By Michael Nielsen. What little research exists on the topic suggests that about 2% of Catholic priests engage in pedophilia, and an additional 4% in ephebophilia (sexual contact with post-pubescent adolescents). How do a few priests come to dominate the headlines?
  • Arahants, Bodhisattvas, and Buddhas
    • The arahant ideal and the bodhisattva ideal are often considered the respective guiding ideals of Theravāda Buddhism and Mahāyāna Buddhism. This assumption is not entirely correct, for the Theravāda tradition has absorbed the bodhisattva ideal into its framework and thus recognizes the validity of both arahantship and Buddhahood as objects of aspiration.
  • Archaeology and the Bible
    • Christian answers and viewpoints on various questions such as whether the Bible is historically accurate, if archaeology verifies the Bible, etc.
  • Are My Beliefs Welcome in Unitarian Universalism?
    • Unitarian Universalism welcomes people with different beliefs and there is rich dialogue in their congregations about spiritual issues. This page lists answers to questions about spirtual practice, existence of a higher power, life and death, inspiration, and sacred texts.
  • Arguments Against Atheism (and Refutations)
    • In this section, some of the commonly levelled accusations against atheism are considered, and counter-arguments provided.
  • Arguments for the Existence of God (and Refutations)
    • Some of the major philosophical arguments for the existence of a god, including the ontological, cosmological, and teleological arguments, intelligent design, the moral argument, the arguments from justice, religious experience, miracles, common consent, scripture, ignorance, reward, consciousness, and Pascal's Wager.
  • Ark of the Covenant
    • One day, in 1978, Ron decided to go sightseeing near the Damascus Gate, in Jerusalem. Walking along an ancient stone quarry, known to some as "the Calvary Escarpment," he was talking with a local authority about Roman antiquities. Without warning, Ron's left hand pointed to a site being used as a rubbish dump and said, "That's Jeremiah's Grotto and the Ark of the Covenant is in there."
  • Armageddon
    • Armageddon has been taken to be a world war between East and West. Rev 16:12-16 says, "Then the sixth angel poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates, and its water was dried up, so that the way of the kings from the east might be prepared.
  • Articles on Vegetarianism
    • Compiled From Several Issues of the Jain Study Circular
  • Athanasian Creed
    • The Athanasian Creed (Quicumque vult) is a Christian statement of belief, focusing on Trinitarian doctrine and Christology.
  • Atheism
    • Wikipedia's page on atheism.
  • Atheism in Hinduism
    • Atheism or disbelief in God or gods has been a historically propounded viewpoint in many of the orthodox and heterodox streams of Hindu philosophies. Generally, atheism is valid in Hinduism, but some schools view the path of an atheist to be difficult to follow in matters of spirituality.
  • Atheism: Belief in no God, or no belief in God. (There is a difference)
    • Definitions of atheism, articles on how atheists and non-atheists view atheism, personal stories by atheists, and atheism symbols
  • Atonement
    • The Atonement is a controversial topic. Theologians have held very different views on it. Some have commented about classical theories of the atonement with in rather vitriolic language.
  • Aum Shinrikyo
    • Aum Shinrikyo (currently known as Aleph) is a Japanese new religious movement. The group was founded by Shoko Asahara in 1984. The group gained international notoriety in 1995, when it carried out the Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway.
  • Ausbund
    • Ausbund (Auss Bundt) oldest hymnbook of the Swiss Brethren, and still today in use by the Amish in North America.
  • Avatars
    • An avatar is thought to be a physical representation on earth of a god, goddess, or supreme being. This articles discusses avatars in Hinduism, particularly, the ten avatars of Vishnu.
  • Ave Maria
    • The Ave Maria is perhaps the most popular of all the Marian prayers. It is composed of two distinct parts, a Scriptural part and an intercessory part.
  • Avoidance
    • Also called shunning or excommunication
  • Ayurveda
    • A short article on the principles behind ayurveda, a system of traditional medicine native to India.
  • Aztec Gods and Goddesses
    • Religion was extremely important in Aztec life. They worshipped hundreds of gods and goddesses, each of whom ruled one or more human activities or aspects of nature.
  • Bahá'í Faith
    • Wikipedia's page on the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Baptism
    • Authoritative statement of doctrine according to the Catholic church.
  • Baptism
    • Baptism, from the very beginning of Christian history is a major ceremony or ordinance (called sacrament by the liturgical churches), instituted by Christ Himself in the Great Commission, the ceremony of initiation into membership in the church.
  • Baptism
    • What is baptism and is it necessary for salvation? Why should we get baptized and what is the right way? These and other questions are addressed in this section. Find out what baptism is and is not.
  • Baptism as practiced by the early and present-day Church
    • Most Christian faith groups agree that baptism is the method by which an individual is welcomed into the church. But denominations disagree on the precise significance of the act, and the age when baptisms are done.
  • Bathukamma
    • Bathukamma is a Autumn festival celebrated by the Hindu women of Telangana region in Andhra Pradesh, India. It is also called as Bodemma. This festival falls in the months of September/October called as Aswiyuja and concludes two days before Dussera called as Durgashtami.
  • Beachy Amish Mennonites Doctrine & Beliefs
    • The Beachy Amish Mennonites are an evangelical, fundamentalist Christian group with an Anabaptist heritage and a conservative practice.
  • Benedicte Dominum
    • Benedicite Dominum, or the Canticle of the Three Young Men is taken from the Old Testament book of Daniel (Dan. 3, 57-88; 56). It is used at Lauds for Sundays and feast days.
  • Benedictio Mensae
    • Blessing before and after meals.
  • Bhagavad Gita
    • The Bhagavad Gita, also referred to as Gita, is a 700-verse Dharmic scripture that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. This scripture contains a conversation between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide Krishna on a variety of philosophical issues.
  • Bible
    • Bible is, besides "Holy Scriptures," the most commonly used name of the Word of God, the collection of the canonical writings in the Old and New Testaments. The word "Bible" is derived from the Greek biblia, books; the popular, customary explanation of the word, "book of books," or "the book" is therefore correct.
  • Bible and Theology Answers
    • Christian answers and viewpoints on apologetics questions like the existance of God, definition of the Trinity, dinosaurs, etc.
  • Bible Difficulties: Genesis - Deuteronomy
    • Questions related to Genesis through Deuteronomy
  • Bible Difficulties: Hebrews - Revelations
    • Bible difficulties, or apparent Bible contradictions, exist. The opponents of Christianity often use them in their attempts to discredit Christianity. Sometimes these attacks undermine the faith of Christians who either don't understand the issues or don't have the resources to deal with them.
  • Bible Difficulties: Isaiah - Malachi
    • Bible difficulties, or apparent Bible contradictions, exist. The opponents of Christianity often use them in their attempts to discredit Christianity. Sometimes these attacks undermine the faith of Christians who either don't understand the issues or don't have the resources to deal with them.
  • Bible Difficulties: Job - Solomon
    • Questions related to Job through the Songs of Solomon
  • Bible Difficulties: Joshua - Esther
    • Questions related to Joshua through Esther
  • Bible Difficulties: Luke - Acts
    • Bible difficulties, or apparent Bible contradictions, exist. The opponents of Christianity often use them in their attempts to discredit Christianity. Sometimes these attacks undermine the faith of Christians who either don't understand the issues or don't have the resources to deal with them.
  • Bible Difficulties: Matthew - Mark
    • Bible difficulties, or apparent Bible contradictions, exist. The opponents of Christianity often use them in their attempts to discredit Christianity. Sometimes these attacks undermine the faith of Christians who either don't understand the issues or don't have the resources to deal with them.
  • Bible Difficulties: Romans - Philemon
    • Bible difficulties, or apparent Bible contradictions, exist. The opponents of Christianity often use them in their attempts to discredit Christianity. Sometimes these attacks undermine the faith of Christians who either don't understand the issues or don't have the resources to deal with them.
  • Bible Information
    • Articles on the Bible from a Reformed perspective including Canonicity
  • Bible's authors
    • Did the Holy Spirit inspire the Bible's authors?
  • Biblical Apocrypha
    • The Biblical Apocrypha are books published in a separate section of some editions of the Bible despite not necessarily being considered part of the canon. For this reason they are typically printed in a third section of the Bible apart from the Old and New Testaments.
  • Biblical Canon
    • A list of books considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular religious community. The term itself was first coined by Christians, but the idea is found in Jewish sources.
  • Biblical Christianity
    • The following is a list of the most significant verses from the Bible that support the Bible's claim to authority.
  • Biblical Hermeneutics
    • Biblical Hermeneutics is the study of the principles of interpretation concerning the books of the Bible. It is part of the broader field of hermeneutics which involves not just the study of principles for the text, but includes all forms of communication: verbal and nonverbal.
  • Biblical Theology
    • Biblical theology is a discipline within Christian theology which studies the Bible from the perspective of understanding the progressive history of God revealing Himself to humanity following the Fall and throughout the Old Testament and New Testament.
  • Bird Headed Beings in Mythology
    • Bird Headed Gods or Entities in Mythology always represent rebirth and resurrection.
  • Bodhisattvas
    • Mahayana Buddhism, the concept of compassion is manifested in the image of the bodhisattva, or "enlightened being." The Sanskrit word "bodhisattva" denotes a human being who has attained enlightenment but has elected not to enter Nirvana, choosing instead to remain in the world to ensure the ultimate salvation of all sentient beings. Compassion is much more than sympathy and extends even to giving one's own life to save another. A bodhisattva actively helps others, sharing intuitive wisdom, understanding, and strength with all those who are seeking enlightenment.
  • Brainwashed in the Blood?
    • As a Pentecostal, I'm not too thrilled with the way kids from my denomination are depicted in Jesus Camp. Matter of fact, this new documentary ticks me off—for a number of reasons.
  • Branch Davidians
    • Wikipedia's page on The Branch Davidians. The Branch Davidians (also known as "The Branch") are a Protestant sect that originated in 1955 from a schism in the Davidian Seventh Day Adventists ("Davidians") around 1930.
  • Bridging the Gap Between Science and Spirituality
    • The role of scientific investigations of paranormal phenomena. By M. Srinivasan. Electronic Journal of Sociology (2007).
  • Brief Hinduism Time-Line
    • A condensed time line depicting the history of Hinduism and the beliefs associated with these events and eras. Includes illustrations.
  • Bruderhof
    • Bruderhof (also called Haushaben) was the name for the community settlements of the Hutterites in Moravia and Slovakia, found today in similar fashion also in South Dakota and Canada. Since community of goods is one of the main principles of the Hutterian Brethren, it was quite natural that from the very beginning of their settlement in Moravia they established such "collective farms" (if it is permissible to use this modern term, forgetting for a moment the great difference in the ideology of Anabaptist communism and Soviet communism).
  • Buddhism
    • A short description of the ideas of god, man and the universe, salvation and the afterlife, morals, and worship in Buddhism.
  • Buddhism
    • Wikipedia's page on Buddhism.
  • Buddhism and China
    • According to tradition, the historical Buddha was born around 563 B.C.E. into an eminent family of the Sakya clan located among the foothills of the Himalayas between present-day Nepal and India. His personal name was Siddhartha, but he later became known as Sakyamuni (Sage of the Sakyas). At the age of twenty-nine he rejected the life of luxury in which he had been raised, leaving his home and family to seek understanding of the suffering and mortality inherent in all life. After years of searching, at the age of thirty-five, he found spiritual enlightenment during a night of meditation. Thereafter, he devoted the rest of his life to teaching the insights he had attained.
  • Buddhism in Myanmar: A Short History
    • Myanmar, or Burma as the nation has been known throughout history, is one of the major countries following Theravada Buddhism.
  • Buddhism in Tibet
    • An introduction to the different types of Buddhism in Tibet.
  • Buddhism, Based on the Teachings of Siddhartha Gautama
    • Buddhism currently has about 376 million followers and is generally listed as the world's fourth largest religion after Christianity, Islam and Hinduism.
  • Buddhism's Core Beliefs
    • The Three Trainings, the Four Noble Truths, the Five Precepts, and the Eightfold Path
  • Buddhist Cave Temples
    • The practice of excavating clusters of rooms or niches into the sides of cliffs and mountains to create cave temples originated in India and spread with Buddhism via Central Asia to China. Within China, Gansu is home to more Buddhist caves than any other region of Chinaóa testimony to its importance in the history of early Chinese Buddhism.
  • Bulls and Briefs
    • A bull may be conveniently defined to be "an Apostolic letter with a leaden seal," to which one may add that in its superscription the pope invariably takes the title of episcopus, servus servorum Dei.
  • Bundling
    • Bundling is usually associated with the Amish as a form of courtship in which the young people, fully clothed except for their shoes, occupy the same bed. The custom seems to have been quite general among them until the beginning of the 19th century.
  • Calendars
    • Descriptions of the Babylonian calendar, Jewish and Moslem calendars and the Era of Nabonassar, Jewish Eras of the World, a modern Luni-Solar calendar, the calendar in India, and Iranian calendars
  • Candomblé
    • Wikipedia's page on Candomblé.
  • Caodaism (Kingdom of Heaven): A Vietnamese-centered religion
    • Dao Cao Dai (Caodaism in English) is the third largest religion in Viet Nam (after Buddhism and Roman Catholicism) and considered a new religious movement.
  • 'Caste wall' is partly demolished
    • Officials in India's Tamil Nadu state have partly demolished a wall which segregated higher caste Hindus from Dalits, formerly known as untouchables.
  • Cat Headed Beings
    • Many gods and goddesses in ancient Egypt were represented with cat heads.
  • Catechism
    • Catechism is the designation for the booklets in which the main outline of Christian doctrine is presented (usually with Scripture references) in the form of questions and answers, for the instruction of youth. The term originated in the Reformation period, apparently having been used first by Johannes Brenz in 1528, although the practice of catechetical instruction goes back to early Christian times.
  • Changing Attitudes Regarding the Indian Caste System
  • Chao-chou's Dog
    • Does a dog have Buddha-nature?
  • Childrearing
    • The process by which the child gains the knowledge and skills needed to function successfully in adult society is called socialization. The chief agency of socialization in modern western societies is the family, since it has full and nearly exclusive access to the child doing the early, most formative years. Other agencies, particularly the school and the church, supplement the family's socialization role.
  • Children
    • From early times the main purpose of marriage was to raise children. They were important not only in their own right, but also for continuation of the family lineage, and to perform the last rites for parents. In some circles, nurturing pious and emotionally stable progeny was considered a valuable socio-spiritual contribution. Some texts emphasise the crucial role that parents play in enabling their offspring to attain spiritual merit and liberation.
  • Children
    • Zwingli and the Anabaptists substantially agreed that children in biblical perspective were surely included in the covenant people of God (Genesis 12:1-4; 17:9-27; Exodus 24:7; Deuteronomy 1:34-39; Deuteronomy 6:5-8, 20-25; Deuteronomy 31:12; Matthew 14:21; Mark 10:13-16; Acts 16:30-33; 2 Timothy 1:5; etc.). Some of the same texts from the two Testaments cited by Zwingli to prove that infant baptism superseded circumcision were used by the Anabaptists to prove that children were covered by Christ's universal atonement whether baptized or not. The latter celebrated this affirmation in a rite of child dedication, for which Marpeck included some suggestions in his confession of 1531 (CRR 2: 147).
  • Children's Work
    • Within the Anabaptist and Mennonite tradition church membership has been theologically limited to adults (mature believers), but from the beginning children have played a special role in the community of faith. On the basis of the following Scriptures. Mennonites hold that all children who have not attained the knowledge to discern between good and evil and have not eaten of the tree of knowledge are surely saved through the suffering of Christ: Genesis 8. Deuteronomy 1:30-31; 1 Corinthians 14; Wisdom 12; 1 Peter 2; Romans 1,2,7,10; Matthew 18-19; Mark 9-10; Luke 18.
  • Christ
    • Comparison of viewpoints on Christ from various perspectives: Christianity, Christian Science, Spiritualism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism, Eastern Mysticism, The Way International, Unity, and Unification Church
  • Christ and Krishna
    • Linkages between two God-men saviors
  • Christe Sanctorum Decus
    • This hymn, less the concluding doxology, is attributed on questionable grounds to Rabanus Maurus (776-856), a pupil of Alcuin. It is traditionally used for Laudes for the feasts of the Archangels Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael. Today, verses 2, 3, and 4 of the hymn are used for their feast on September 29.
  • Christe, Sanctorum Decus Angelorum
    • This hymn, less the concluding doxology, is attributed on questionable grounds to Rabanus Maurus (776-856), a pupil of Alcuin. It is traditionally used for Laudes for the feasts of the Archangels Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael. Today, verses 2, 3, and 4 of the hymn are used for their feast on September 29.
  • Christian Basics
    • This simple course introduces the Christian Faith. Its aim is to show what the Bible teaches. It can be used on your own, one-to-one, or in a small group with a leader. It is important that you look up the Bible References and think about what they say, so you see for yourself the Bible's teaching.
  • Christian Contemplation and Zen Enlightenment: Are They the Same?
    • This is the transcript of a DVD of a workshop given in August, 1991 at the Spiritual Life Center in Wichita, Kansas, comparing Zen enlightenment and Christian contemplation.
  • Christian Doctrine and Theology
    • Basic Christian Doctrine is the study of the revealed word of God. It is Christian Theology regarding the nature truth, God, Jesus, salvation, damnation, the Trinity, the Holy Spirit, the Gospel, resurrection, and more.
  • Christian Symbols: Ornaments
    • Handmade Christmas Tree Ornaments have been popular since the first Christmas Trees were used in sixteenth century Europe. A fairly recent innovation to this practice in the last half century is to use various traditional symbols of the Christian Faith as the motif of the ornaments. Some of the traditional symbols of Christianity are monograms composed of various combinations of letters of the name Christ or titles for Jesus. They are sometimes called Christograms or Chrismons™.
  • Christianity
    • Wikipedia's page on Christianity.
  • Christianity in Gaza
    • The Historical and Geographical Setting of Gaza
  • Christianity: The World's Largest Religion
    • Information on Christianity, the Bible, background, and denominations
  • Christmas and the ACLU
    • Every December 25th, millions of Americans celebrate Christmas.1 For many children, Christmas is the favorite holiday of the year. It is a time for families and friends to gather together. For many Christians it is one of the holiest days of the year.
  • Church Music
    • This article reflects Mennonite thinking in the mid-20th century; read it in the context of its time.
  • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
    • Website for LDS with multitude of links and resources.
  • Church Rodent Glossary
    • Short reference articles arranged alphabetically
  • Class Exercise: Defining Religion
    • How do you define religion? This article provides a description of The Brights, a loosely organized group of people who advocate taking a naturalistic approach toward life, and asks students to decide whether The Brights should be considered a religion.
  • Colossal 'sea monster' unearthed
    • The fossilised skull of a colossal "sea monster" has been unearthed along the UK's Jurassic Coast.
  • Commemoratio Sanctae Trinitatis
    • Morning and evening prayers from the Roman Breviary for Trinity Sunday.
  • Comments on the Bhagavad Gita
    • By Dr. Kelley Ross. Written from a historical and philosophical viewpoint. Using the Juan Mascaró translation (Penguin Books, 1962), with references to the Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore translation (A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy, Princeton, 1957).
  • Comments on the Tao Te Ching
    • By Dr. Kelley Ross. Using the D.C. Lau translation (Penguin Books, 1963)
  • Communion
    • Communion (Lord's Supper, Abendmahl, Nachtmahl) has always had only a symbolic meaning for the Anabaptists and Mennonites and was observed as the ordinance of the Lord and not a sacrament which in itself conveys the grace of God to the participant. The early Christians probably observed the Lord's Supper at every meeting for worship in accordance with the Lord's ordinance given in Matthew 26:26-28; Mark 14:22-25, etc.
  • Community of Christ
    • The Community of Christ was known from 1872 to 2001 as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS)
  • Community of Goods
    • The usual sources given for the practice of community of goods (communism) among Christians are the chapters in the Book of Acts 2, 4-5, where the economic practices of the primitive church in Jerusalem are described. The "having all things in common" described here was not based, to be sure, on a special commandment of Christ but represented rather a necessary makeshift according to the needs of the actual situation which arose from the presence of thousands of newly baptized Christians far away from their homes in the Jewish diaspora.
  • Comparison Chart for Oriental Religions
    • This chart compares the country of origin, dates, and names of founders, and social status of several world religions.
  • Concepts of Sin: All Points of View
    • Sin is major foundational concept in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and in many other religions.
  • Confession
    • Biblically we confess our faith and we confess our sins. Both are declarations. To confess our faith means to publicly declare our belief in Christ. To confess our sins means to admit them. Of course, our confession is properly accompanied by a request of forgiveness.
  • Confession
    • This article is for the religious practice of confessing one's sins.
  • Confiteor
    • A Confiteor is a penitential prayer where we acknowledge our sinfulness and seek God's mercy and forgiveness. Confiteors have been part of Christianity from the beginning.
  • Conflict Thesis
    • The conflict thesis proposes an intrinsic intellectual conflict between religion and science. The original historical usage of the term denoted that the historical record indicates religion’s perpetual opposition to science.
  • Conflicts & Occasional Agreements in Truth Between Science and Religion
    • Topics include earth & the universe, ethics & morality, religious artifacts, human sexuality, and miracles
  • Confucianim
    • Wikipedia's page on Confucianism.
  • Confucianism: a World Religion Founded by K'ung Fu Tzu (a.k.a. Confucius)
    • History, symbols, beliefs, teachings, practices & schools of Confucianism
  • Confucius
    • One of the most famous people in ancient China was a wise philosopher named Confucius - also Kong Zi, Kong Qiu, or Zhong Ni. Confucius was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher, whose teachings and philosophy have deeply influenced Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese thought and life.
  • Confucius
    • This article covers the basic morals found in Confucianism, the Six Relationships and the Mandate of Heaven, as well as other aspects of the philosophy.
  • Consors Paterni Luminis
    • Attributed to St. Abrose (340-397), this hymn is traditionally used at Tuesday Matins. Today it is used for the Office of teh Readings on Tuesdays of the first and third weeks of the Psalter of Ordinary Time.
  • Controversial Matters: Freedom of Expression; Internal Divisions
    • Although Bahá'ís have been very active in the promotion of freedom of expression around the world, there are significant restrictions on freedoms of individual Baha'i members.
  • Conversi ad Dominum Deum
    • Written by St. Augustine (354-430) to conclude several of his sermons. This one is found in his Sermo CLXXXIII.
  • Conversion in African Traditional Religions
    • By Christopher I. Ejizu. This article describes aspects of conversion among indigenous African religions, including exchange of beliefs and conversion to missionary religions.
  • Counter-Reformation
    • Counter-Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648 as a response to the Protestant Reformation.
  • Cowries for Ojebeta and for the Yoruba
    • Cowries are tools of divination in Yoruba culture. The system of the sixteen cowries, practiced by both men and women, reveals the coming of any of five blessings or five evils, long life, money, marriage, children, and defeat of one's enemy or death, illness, fighting, the want of money, and loss.
  • Creeds and Confessions
    • Creeds and Confessions are written summaries of the Christian faith. Different Creeds have different reasons for coming into existence and they don't always agree with each other 100% of the time. However, they divulge the truth of the Christian faith in the essentials.
  • Cults a.k.a. New Religious Movements
    • Are they Spiritual, Positive, Gentle, Harmless, Heretical, Mind Controlling, Dangerous, Homicidal.... or all of the above? Topics include: negative aspects, attitudes toward NRMs, attacks on NRMs, and general information about cults.
  • Culture, Religion & Disability: An Introduction
    • This article discusses how disability is perceived in the intersection between religion and culture
  • December 21, 2012
    • According to the ancient Mayan calendar, the world will end in the year 2012. This article explains several viewpoints on this theory.
  • Dedication of Infants
    • The consecration of children is an old, though not universally observed custom among the Mennonites, which is based on Matthew 19:13-15; Mark 10:13-16; and Luke 18:15-17. The first mention of this ceremony was found in the letter written by Balthasar Hubmaier to Oecolampadius in Basel, on 16 January 1525: "Instead of baptism, I have the congregation assemble, introduce the child, and in German explain Matthew 19:13-15. Then the child is named; the entire church prays with bent knees for it and commends it to Christ, that He may be gracious to it and intercede for it." Pilgram Marpeck also mentions the ceremony in his Confession of Faith of 1531 (Mennonite Quarterly Review 12, 1938, 195).
  • Deepening Consciousness
    • From Shattering the Sacred Myths: Describes consciousness as a natural phenomenon and establishes a theoretical foundation for justice based upon the democratic decisions of free and educated people.
  • Definitions of terms: Cults, Sects and Denominations
    • Explanation of the differences between cults, sects, and denominations
  • Deism and the Founding of the United States
    • By Darren Staloff. While some Christians promote that Christianity was central to the foundation of the United States, scholars debate that Deism played a central role.
  • Deism: About the God Who Created the Universe, Set it Going, and Then Possibly Left
    • Deists believe in the existence of God, on purely rational grounds, without any reliance on revealed religion or religious authority or holy text.
  • Deus, Qui Fidei Sacramenta
    • This prayer comes from the Mass for the Feast of the Transfiguration, Aug. 6. This particular version is taken from the '62 Missal.
  • Deuterocanonical Books
    • Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the sixteenth century in the Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Old Testament that are not part of the Hebrew Bible. The term is used in contrast to the protocanonical books, which are contained in the Hebrew Bible.
  • Dharma and the Individual
  • Dharma: Leading a Righteous Life
    • Dharma is roughly translated as "religious duty." There are two principle dharmas, namely sanatana-dharma and varnashrama-dharma. There are also general moral codes called sadharana-dharma
  • Divali
    • Divali, known as the Festival of Lights or Lamps “is one of the most prominent and widely celebrated Hindu festivals” (Schomer 8), and “…in the most limited sense refers to the illuminations made on the [festivals] new-moon night…” (Schomer 13).
  • Diwali
    • Diwali or Deepavali, popularly known as the "festival of lights", is an important five-day festival in Hinduism, Jainism, and Sikhism, occurring between mid-October and mid-November. For Hindus, Diwali is one of the most important festivals of the year and is celebrated in families by performing traditional activities together in their homes.
  • Do All Paths Lead to the Same Destination?
    • Is it possible that Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, etc. represent differing, yet valid, paths to the same destination? This article examines arguments for and against the claim that all paths lead to the same destination.
  • Do you know the basics of the Christian faith?
    • God tells us to grow beyond the basics of the Christian faith and to press on to maturity. Sadly, most Christians are not very well acquainted with the basics of Christianity and so linger in the milk of the word instead of going on to the meat. My interviews of Christians over the years has led me to believe that about 80% of them have a faulty understanding of justification by faith and about 90% as many couldn't defend the deity of Christ from the Bible. In fact, most Christians I've encountered do not understand who Jesus is biblically, let alone defend the proper understanding of what Jesus did on the cross.
  • Dogon Tribe
    • The Dogon are an ethnic group located mainly in the administrative districts of Bandiagara and Douentza in Mali, West Africa.
  • Domine Sancte, Pater Omnipotens
    • The text of this prayer appears in the Stimulus Divini Amoris. In the past this work has been attributed to St. Bonaventure (1218-1274) and to Henri of Beaume (d. 1439), but it is actually the work of Jacobus Mediolanensis (13th/14th century).
  • Doomsday, Destructive Religious Cults
    • Articles on Aum Shinri Kyo, The Family (Charles Manson), Branch Davidians, Heaven's Gate, Jeffrey Lundgren, Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God (Uganda), The People's Temple (Jim Jones), and Solar Temple
  • Doubt as Methodology and Object in the Phenomenology of Religion
    • Issues with defining the term "religion." M/C Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1 (2011) By Malcolm David Brown.
  • Doxologia Minor
    • A short expression of praise to the Trinity from the very early Church. Authors such as Hippolytus (d. 235) and Origen (ca 231) use very similar phrases in praise of the Trinity.
  • Drawing the Lines: The Right to Religion and Religious Crisis in Nigeria
    • This paper reflects on the ongoing friction between Nigerian Muslims and Christians, which was exacerbated by the recent Presidential elections that resulted in violence in the northern part of the country between these two religious groups. Primarily, the paper explores the relationship between the right to religion, which is protected in the 1999 Constitution of Nigeria and other international human rights instruments, and the continuing religious crisis in Nigeria.
  • Dreamtime - Australian Aboriginal Beliefs
    • This article talks about the Australian aboriginal belief called the Dreamtime.
  • Dress
    • [This is a combination of J.C. Wenger's comprehensive essay from the mid-1950s and Robert Kreider's 1989 update. Both articles focus primarily on Mennonites in the United States, though they describe a number of Mennonite groups in Ontario, and small Mennonite groups located elsewhere in Canada.]
  • Duodecim Apostoli
    • While references to the Twelve Apostles frequently appear in Scripture, the actual list of names of the Twelve Apostles appears only four times; Mt 10:2-4, Mk 3:16-19, Lk 6:14-16, and Acts 1:13. Each list generally follows the same order and contains the same names.
  • Durga Puja
    • Durga Puja, also referred to as Durgotsava, is an annual Hindu festival in South Asia that celebrates worship of the Hindu goddess Durga. It refers to all the six days observed as Mahalaya, Shashthi , Maha Saptami, Maha Ashtami, Maha Navami and Bijoya Dashami.
  • Early Christian Writings
    • Early Christian Writings is the most complete collection of documents from the first two centuries with translations and commentary. Includes the New Testament, Apocrypha, Gnostics, and Church Fathers.
  • Early Islam
    • Various articles on Ancient Islamic culture
  • Easter
    • Its origins, meanings and practices
  • Ecole Initiative
    • Early Church History Articles
  • Egyptian Gods Index
    • A list of ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses, with articles on each.
  • Egyptian Royal Tombs of the New Kingdom
    • This article by Dr. Kelley Ross describes various aspects of Egyptian tombs and pyramids. Includes diagrams of the tombs of several pharaohs.
  • Environmental Health: an Islamic Perspective
    • Discusses the ways in which Islamic teachings and the views of Muslim physicians and scholars can be used to identify specific actions to protect the environment and thus promote human health. By Dr. Mohammad Haytham Al-Khayat, 1997, World Health Organization.
  • Equipping Christians to Understand Other World Faiths and Religious Philosophies
    • Specifically written for Christians wanting to understand other world religions, this table cross-references the ideas of god, man & the universe, salvation & the afterlife, morals, and worship with the philosophies found in Biblical Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism.
  • Equipping Christians to Understand Other World Faiths and Religious Philosophies
    • This table cross-references beliefs about God, Christ, the Holy Spirit, Sin, Redemption, Salvation, and Retribution among several religions: Biblical Christianity, Christian Science, Spiritualism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism, Eastern Mysticism, The Way Int'l, Unity, and the Unification Church.
  • Escaping caste
    • What do you do if you want to escape from the bottom of the social heap?
  • Eschatology
    • Competing theories of eschatology, end times, and millennialism
  • Eschatology
    • The following resources pertain to eschatology -- the study of the end times. There are three basic eschatological views which are held by those calling themselves "Reformed." These are: postmillennialism, amillennialism, and historic premillennialism. Absent from the list is dispensational premillennialism because it is a view which (a) is incompatible with the doctrines of grace (b) compromises God's aseity, and (c) compromises God's sovereignty. Below are included some critques of different aspects of dispensationalist teaching.
  • Ethnographic Research Strategy
    • This introduction to ethnographic research details the tools used in study and data collection.
  • Evolution
    • Comparative viewpoints including definitions of terms, Theistic Evolutionism, Darwinian Evolutionism, Creationism, Timelines, Archaeology vs. Evolutionary Science vs. Bible, etc.
  • Existentialism
    • This resources covers the ideals of the philosophy of Existentialism and Jean Paul Sartre, using examples from Albert Camus, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Soren Kierkegaard. Existentialism promotes the view that the essence of human nature comes only after humankind exists. Without the existence of a god, life is without purpose or meaning.
  • Exposition of the Apostles' Creed
    • Article by Rev. James Dodd
  • Expressions of Faith
  • Exsultet
    • The Exsultet, sometimes seen as "Exultet" and also referred to as the Praeconium Paschale, is an ancient chant sung during the Easter Vigil. It is traditionally sung by the deacon after the Paschal candle has been lit and the clergy have processed to the altar. The lighted Paschal candle contains a twofold symbolism. First, it represents the pillar of fire that went before the Israelites during their flight from Egypt. Second, it represents Christ, who is the light of the world.
  • Faith and the Holocaust
    • A collection of written lectures by Rav Tamir Granot on topics such as faith and suffering, belief in God, and divine punishment, all in relation to the Holocaust.
  • Faith Healing
    • Faith healing is the belief that religious faith can bring about healing—either through prayers or rituals that, according to adherents, evoke a divine presence and power toward correcting disease.
  • Faith Positions
    • Articles on various religions' views of homosexuality, from the Human Rights Campaign.
  • Family Prayers: A Sampler
    • A sample of Unitarian Universalist prayers. Irene Praeger, Editor
  • Famous Women within Hinduism
    • Hindu scripture, particularly of the earlier period, places great value on contributions of women. The much-reported abuses of women in India demonstrate a falling away from traditional practice. Many famous women serve as lasting role models, though with the influence of feminism such values are less popular with the younger generation or need reinterpretation to suit the current social context.
  • Festivals
    • On a day (or days) of Taisai (the major festival), not only a shrine but also its surrounding area is prevailed by a joyous atmosphere.
  • Festivals – Celebrated by a Gurdwara
    • Festivals and Other days Celebrated in Gurdwaras
  • Festivus
    • Festivus is a secular holiday celebrated on December 23 as a way to celebrate the holiday season without participating in its pressures and commercialism. It was made popular through the television show Seinfeld.
  • First Seven Ecumenical Councils
    • In the history of Christianity, the first seven Ecumenical Councils, from the First Council of Nicaea to the Second Council of Nicaea, represent an attempt to reach an orthodox consensus and to establish a unified Christendom as the State church of the Roman Empire.
  • First Three Centuries of Christianity
    • The first three centuries of Christianity, as seen by religious liberals and historians
  • Flaming Chalice: Symbol of Our Faith
    • A flame within a chalice (a cup with a stem and foot), represents the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) and is a symbol of the Unitarian Universalist faith.
  • Flood Myth
    • The myth of a great flood that overwhelms the earth is a common story found throughout many world religions.
  • Flood Stories - The Deluge
    • Flood stories from around the world
  • Flying Spaghetti Monster
    • The Flying Spaghetti Monster (FSM) is the deity of the parody religion The Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, created in 2005 by Bobby Henderson as a satirical protest to the decision by the Kansas State Board of Education to require the teaching of intelligent design as an alternative to biological evolution.
  • Foundationalism and Hermeneutics
    • Traditional foundationalism was the view that knowledge could be started, or started again, from nothing by finding pieces of certain and infallible knowledge, the "foundation" upon which all other knowledge could be constructed. Hermeneutics is the study of the theory and practice of interpretation.
  • Four Main Beliefs About the Nature of God: Deism, Panentheism, Pantheism & Theism
    • When discussing the nature of God, there are four main perspectives
  • Furore reflects India's caste complexities
    • A plan to set aside places at some of India's best-known professional colleges for low-caste Indians has bitterly divided the country.
  • Ganesh Chaturthi
    • Ganesha Chaturthi, also known as Vinayaga Chaturthi is the Hindu festival of Ganesha, the son of Shiva and Parvati, who is believed to bestow his presence on earth for all his devotees in the duration of this festival. It is the birthday of Ganesha who is widely worshipped as the god of wisdom, prosperity and good fortune.
  • Geologic Time Scale
  • Gloria
    • The Gloria is an ancient hymn of praise to the Trinity that has been in use in the Church since the second century. The opening line of the hymn is taken from Scripture (Lk 2:14), where the angels announce the birth of Christ to the shepherds.
  • Gloria, Laus et Honor
    • Composed by Theodulph of Orleans (d. 821), this hymn is often used as a processional hymn for Palm Sunday.
  • Glossary Terms for Worship
    • Hindu worship encompasses a broad range of activities, including even dance and drama (see Expressions of Faith). In this section we focus on practices which to the Western mind seem more clearly "acts of worship."
  • Gnosticism
    • Wikipedia's page on Gnosticism. Gnosticism is an ancient religion, which believes its followers have esoteric knowledge of god, humanity, and the universe. It is debated whether Gnosticism began as a subset of Christianity or if it were already in existence.
  • Gnosticism: Ancient and Modern
    • Gnosticism is a philosophical and religious movement which started in pre-Christian times. The name is derived from the Greek word "gnosis" which literally means "knowledge."
  • God (Part 1): Perceived in Three Ways
    • Many Hindus describe God as sat-cid-ananda, full of eternity, knowledge and bliss. These correspond to three main features of the Supreme
  • God (Part 2): Two Main Understandings
    • The previously explored concepts are shared by most of the theologically developed strands of Hinduism. It is when we get to the nature and identity of the Supreme that the tradition appears complex. In the broader sense, Hinduism might well encompass every notion of God there is, including more primitive forms of polytheism. Within the more sophisticated schools of thought, particularly Vedanta, there are two main doctrines, each with many variations and each emphasising that there is one God. These are monism and monotheism.
  • God (Trinity), Doctrine of
    • The doctrine of God is central to Christian theology. In fact, the term theology in the broad sense means the study of God and is not restricted to Christianity. Usually Christian theology is understood more specifically to include reflection on the nature of God, on God's self-disclosure in creation and especially in Christ as witnessed to by the Scriptures, on God's ongoing interaction with the world through the Holy Spirit, and on the consummation of God's purpose beyond time. It is quite appropriate therefore to say that Christian theology begins and ends with the doctrine of God.
  • God in Hinduism
    • Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, monism, atheism, agnosticism, gnosticism among others; and its concept of God is complex and depends upon each particular tradition and philosophy. It is sometimes referred to as henotheistic (i.e., involving devotion to a single god while accepting the existence of others).
  • Goddesses Who Weave and Spin (Spirals of Consciousness)
    • Goddesses who spin or weave is a common theme in religions.
  • Gods and Goddesses of Ancient India
    • Descriptions of many of the great gods and goddesses of India and Hinduism.
  • Gods and Goddesses of Fertility
    • Fertility is important in many cultures and have therefore spun the phenomenon of worshipping gods and goddesses of fertility.
  • Gods and Goddesses of Love
    • In many religions, gods and goddesses exist that specialize in love or romance.
  • Gods, Goddesses & Other Deities, as Perceived by Various Religions
    • Many articles on the various perpsectives of deities
  • Gratiarum Actio ad Trinitatem
    • This prayer was written by St. Catherine of Siena (1347-1380), Doctor of the Church. The prayer is from her Dialogue on Divine Providence and appears in the Office of the Readings on her feast day, April 29.
  • Gratiarum Actio Pro Suscepto Baptismi Sacramento
    • Act of thanksgiving for receiving the sacrament of baptism.
  • Great East-West Schism
    • Formally divided medieval Christianity into Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) branches, which later became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, respectively.
  • Greek Mythology
    • The accounts of several ancient Greek myths
  • Guest Commentary: Jesus Camp
    • This week, a documentary about a Pentecostal kids' camp hits the silver screen--and blogs, news sites, and message boards are already buzzing. Blogger/writer/preacher Rich Tatum had a chance to see a pre-release of the film and gives us a sneak peek of Jesus Camp.
  • Hail Mary
    • The Hail Mary (sometimes called the "Angelical salutation", sometimes, from the first words in its Latin form, the "Ave Maria") is the most familiar of all the prayers used by the Universal Church in honour of our Blessed Lady.
  • Haitian Voodoo
    • Wikipedia's page on Haitian Voodoo.
  • Halakha
    • Halakha, or Halacha—is the collective body of religious laws for Jews, including biblical law and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions.
  • Halakha Archives
    • Hakakha is a combination of the religious law of the Jews as well as their religious customs and traditions.
  • Hanukkah
    • Hanukkah, or the Festival of Lights, is an 8-day Jewish celebration commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt of the 2nd century BCE.
  • Hanuman Jayanti
    • Hanuman Jayanti is celebrated to commemorate the birth of Hanuman, the Vanara god, widely venerated throughout India especially in North India. It is celebrated during the month of Chaitra.
  • Hare Krishna & ISKCON
    • The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) is the religious organization for devotees of Krishna (also spelled Krsna). Their religion is commonly known as Hare Krishna, because of the first two words of their principle mantra: Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Krishna, Krishna, Hare, Hare, Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama, Rama, Hare, Hare.
  • Hawaii’s Domestication of Shinto
    • An American flag waves briskly in the breeze beside a Shinto shrine on the major freeway leading from Honolulu to Pearl Harbor. Just five miles away is the spot where Japanese planes dropped their bombs on the American fleet. Few tourists rushing between Pearl Harbor and Waikiki realize the deep irony that flag symbolizes. But for those who fought in World War II or know the history of that encounter, the sight of an American flag at a shrine so closely associated with the adversary calls forth a whole complex of reactions.
  • Health as a Human Right in Islam
    • This paper covers the areas of health and human rights, health and faith in Islam, and the right to health. By Dr M.H. Al-Khayat, 2004, World Health Organization.
  • Health Promotion Through Islamic Lifestyles: the Amman Declaration
    • This publication contains the proceedings of a meeting held in Amman, Jordan, in cooperation with the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO), the Islamic Organization for Medical Sciences and the Royal Academy for Research in Islamic Civilization - Aal Al-Bayt Foundation. The aim of this meeting was to prepare a detailed exposition on the Islamic guidance concerning the great impact and tremendous benefit of the Islamic principles in the field of health. 1996, World Health Organization.
  • Health: An Islamic Perspective
    • Islamic concept of health and seeking medical treatment; principles pertaining to cleanliness and personal hygiene, marriage and family life, care of children, immunization, proper nutrition, consumption of safe food and water, and protection of the environment; teachings and rulings that encourage health promotion and protection; Islamic concept of community participation as an essential component of primary health care. By Dr M.H. Al-Khayat,1997, World Health Organization.
  • Heaven's Gate (cult)
    • Heaven's Gate was an American UFO Cult based in San Diego, California, founded and led by Marshall Applewhite (1931–1997) and Bonnie Nettles (1928–1985). On March 26, 1997, in a period that Comet Hale-Bopp was at its brightest, police discovered the bodies of 39 members of the group who had committed suicide.
  • Hikari no Wa
    • The Circle of Rainbow Light is a breakaway group started by Fumihiro Joyu, the previous spokesperson and public relations manager of the controversial Japanese cult called Aum Shinrikyo in 2007.
  • Hinayana Buddhism
    • Wikipedia's page on Hinayana Buddhism.
  • Hindu Cosmology and Fundamental Concepts
  • Hindu Deities and Puranic Mythology
  • Hindu Devas
    • The Hindu scriptures refer to celestial entities called Devas, "the shining ones", which may be translated into English as "gods" or "heavenly beings".
  • Hindu Doctrine
    • Hinduism has neither a common doctrine nor a single scripture as the source of its various teachings. It places more emphasis on orthopraxy than orthodoxy, encouraging relative freedom of thought within tightly defined codes of conduct and morality.
  • Hindu Milk Miracle
    • The Hindu milk miracle was a phenomenon reported to have occurred on September 21, 1995. Before dawn, a Hindu worshipper at a temple in south New Delhi made an offering of milk to a statue of Lord Ganesha. When a spoonful of milk from the bowl was held up to the trunk of the statue, the liquid was seen to disappear, apparently taken in by the idol.
  • Hindu Pilgrimage
  • Hindu Sects
  • Hindu Texts
    • Hindu literature can be divided into two categories: Shruti–that which is revealed and Smriti–that which is remembered.
  • Hinduism
    • A general introduction.
  • Hinduism
    • An introductory article about the religion of Hinduism.
  • Hinduism
    • Introduction, God, man and the universe, salvation and the afterlife, morals, worship
  • Hinduism
    • Short articles on Hinduism: History, Size & Location, Origins, Holy Texts, Hindus Believe In Practices, The Gods, Worship, The Organization, and Festivals.
  • Hinduism
    • Wikipedia's page on Hinduism.
  • Hinduism: A Christian Perspective
    • All about Hinduism, written for Christians wanting to understand this religion.
  • Hinduism: Additional information & links
    • A collection of additional information and links to other materials regarding the Hindu religion.
  • Hinduism: The world's third largest religion
    • Hinduism does not have a single founder, a specific theological system, a single concept of deity, a single holy text, a single system of morality, a central religious authority, or the concept of a prophet.
  • Historical Jesus Theories
    • The purpose of this web page is to explain and explore some of the theories offered up by contemporary scholars on the historical Jesus and the origins of the Christian religion. Issues include the nature of the historical Jesus, the nature of the early Christian documents, and the origins of the Christian faith in a risen Jesus Christ. An attempt has been made to include historical Jesus theories across the spectrum from Marcus Borg to N.T. Wright and to describe these historical Jesus theories in an accurate and concise way.
  • History of Christianity
    • The history of Christianity is the study of the religion started by a Jewish rabbi from Nazareth named Jesus. Christianity would grow into one of the major religions, impacting all other faiths and changing the course of human history. It mainly concerns the Christian religion and Church.
  • History of Christmas
    • Short article on Christmas.
  • History of the Ontological Argument for the Existence of God
    • This article provides a brief overview of the history & philosophical perspectives of the ontological argument for the existence of a god.
  • Holi
    • Holi, or Holli, is a spring religious festival celebrated by Hindus and Sikhs. It is primarily observed in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and countries with large Indic diaspora populations, such as Suriname, Guyana, South Africa, Trinidad, United Kingdom, United States, Mauritius, and Fiji.
  • Holocaust Theology
    • Holocaust theology refers to a body of theological and philosophical debate and reflection, and related literature, primarily within Judaism, that attempts to come to grips with various conflicting views about the role of God in the universe and the human world in light of the Holocaust of the late 1930s and 1940s when approximately 11 million people, including 6 million Jews, were subjected to genocide by the Nazi regime and its allies.
  • Holy Grail
    • In Christian mythology, the Holy Grail was the dish, plate, cup or vessel that caught Jesus' blood during his crucifixion. It was said to have the power to heal all wounds. A theme joined to the Christianised Arthurian mythos relates to the quest for the Holy Grail.
  • Holy Orders
    • The term Holy Orders is used by many Christian churches to refer to ordination or to those individuals ordained for a special role or ministry.
  • Homosexual Candidates, the Seminary and the Priesthood
    • The Congregation for Catholic Education in accord with the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments and with the approval of Benedict XVI issued an instruction on the admission of homosexual candidates to the seminary and Holy Orders. The instruction is singular in purpose: "whether to admit to the seminary and to holy orders candidates who have deep-seated homosexual tendencies."
  • Hopi Prophecies
    • A summary of many prophecies of the Hopi people.
  • How many Hindus are there in the U.S. and the rest of the world?
    • According to an undated report by the Pluralism Project at Harvard University: "The estimated number of Hindus ranges from just over one million to almost 1,300,000."
  • Hutterian Brethren
    • The Hutterian Brethren, also called Hutterites, the Austrian branch of the great Anabaptist movement of the 16th century, was characterized by the practice of community of goods, as first established in Moravia in 1529 and re-established on more solid grounds by Jakob Hutter in 1533.
  • Hutterites
    • Encyclopedia of Selected Peaceful Societies
  • Iam, Christe, Sol Iustitiae
    • From the 10th century, though some feel it is Ambrosian from the 6th century. This hymn is traditionally used for the ferial offices for Lauds during the weeks of Lent before Holy Week. The revsion of 1632 altered the hymn extensively with the title of the hymn becoming O Sol salutis, initimis.
  • Iesu Rex Admirabilis
    • Iesu, Rex Admirabilis is part of the hymn Iesu, Dulcis Memoria which is attributed to St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153). This hymn was used at Matins for the Feast of the Holy Name of Jesus, which was celebrated on the Sunday between the Circumcision and Epiphany, or failing such a Sunday, on January 2. In the liturgical revisions of Vatican II, the feast was deleted, though a votive Mass to the Holy Name of Jesus had been retained for devotional use. With the release of the revised Roman Missal in March 2002, the feast was restored as an optional memorial on January 3.
  • Ifa: the Religion of the Yoruba Peoples
    • Yoruba refers to a group of cultures linked by a common language. They occupied an area bounded by the Niger River, and including what is now known as the Benin Republic, southwestern Nigeria, and part of Togo. They held a belief system in common: the Ifa religion.
  • Importance of Science in the Study of Zend Avesta
    • K R Cama Memorial lecture by Ervad Dr. Minocher Dadabhoy Karkhanawala. The Zend Avesta is a Zoroastrian text.
  • Important Festivals
    • Hinduism almost certainly has a longer list of festivals than any other religious tradition, and there are considerable regional and denominational variations. Twelve of the more popular and widely celebrated events are listed below.
  • India's caste-offs
    • India's economy is booming. But, as the Today programme's Mike Thomson explains, hundreds of millions of its people still live in abject rural poverty, victims of a caste system whose grip remains as strong as ever.
  • Inerrancy
    • Inerrancy: Is the Bible free of error? All points of view.
  • Instiutio Catholica
    • This list was compiled from a number of prayer books that were composed from the 18th to the mid 20th century. Prayer books from this period would often contain short summaries on the teachings of the Church and the duties of good Christians.
  • International Society for Krishna Consciousness
    • The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), also known as the Hare Krishna movement, is a Hindu Gaudiya Vaishnava religious organization. It was founded in 1966 in New York City by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.
  • Introductio
    • The Thesaurus Precum Latinarum is a collection of Latin prayers and Latin hymns with English translations and brief commentaries. The commentaries outline the origins, history and use of many of the items with the prayers themselves being drawn from the entire 2,000 year history of the Church.
  • Introduction to Learning Gemara
    • The Gemara is the rabbinical commentary on the Mishna, which is the oral traditions of Judaism.
  • Introduction: Kami
    • The term Shinto is commonly associated with the expression "eighty myriads of kami," indicating the truly immense number of such kami found in the religion, and suggesting the obvious reason why Shinto is usually referred to as a "polytheistic" belief system.
  • Is Buddhism a Religion or a Philosophy?
    • Whether Buddhism is, or is not, a religion depends upon how the word "religion" is defined.
  • Is Mormonism Christian?
    • This is a series of documents about Mormonism, written by a Christian professor who is an ex-Mormon. It compares essential Mormon and Christian doctrines.
  • Islam
    • 622 AD-present, a detailed history
  • Islam
    • A broad study of Islam, looking at its background, origins, pillars of faith, articles of faith, and differing viewpoints on the Person of Jesus Christ. Written by Christians.
  • Islam
    • Short articles on Islam: History, Size & Location, Origins, Holy Texts, Muslim believes In, Practices, The Gods, Worship, The Organisation
  • Islam
    • Some basic facts about Islam, including God, man & the universe, salvation & the afterlife, morals, and worship.
  • Islam
    • Wikipedia's page on the Islamic religion.
  • Islam in America: From African Slaves to Malcolm X
    • By Thomas A. Tweed. A short discussion of African-American Islam.
  • Islam: The Second Largest World Religion and Growing
    • Many articles on beliefs and practices, tolerance, peace, and conflicts in Islam
  • Islamic Ruling on Animal Slaughter
    • Sets out the conclusions reached by experts and legal scholars asked to advise about methods of animal slaughter that are permitted by Islamic law and thus render meat fit for consumption by Muslims. 1997, World Health Organization.
  • Islamic Ruling on Male and Female Circumcision
    • A collection of three brief scholarly treatises on male and female circumcision as viewed in the body of Islamic law. Noting the lack of doubt that male circumcision is a legitimate practice, the papers largely address common misunderstandings about the Islamic ruling in the case of daughters. 1996, World Health Organization.
  • Islamic Ruling on Smoking
    • Many of the principles of Islam call upon people to look after their health, to avoid health hazards and risks and to raise their standards of hygiene. The Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of the World Health Organization sought the opinions of a number of eminent Muslim scholars with regard to the Islamic ruling on smok-ing. By Dr M.H. Al-Khayat, 2000, World Health Organization.
  • Israel
    • A overview of the history of Israel, including a timeline of important events in Jewish history.
  • Jainism
    • An introductory article about the religion of Jainism.
  • Jainism
    • Wikipedia's page on Jainism.
  • Jainism At A Glance
    • Historical background, life of Bhagwaan Mahaveer, & Jain philosophy
  • Jakob Ammann
    • The Mennonite elder, Jakob Ammann, was a native of Erlenbach in the Simme Valley south of Thun, canton of Bern, Switzerland. He founded the Amish branch of the Mennonites through a schism which he occasioned in 1693 in the Emmental, canton of Bern.
  • Jakob Hutter
    • It is a false assumption to consider the simple and unlearned hatmaker Jakob Hutter the founder and beginner of the Anabaptists in Tyrol; for the Anabaptist movement had long been thriving when Hutter entered it. But it is certain that none of his predecessors or successors in the eastern Anabaptist movement equaled him in importance; for none was so successful in creating and reforming.
  • Japanese Creational Myths
    • A summary of the story of Izanagi and Izanami, the god and goddess who formed the land we call Japan.
  • Jedi Census Phenomenon
    • The Jedi census phenomenon is a grassroots movement that was created in 2001 for citizens of a number of English-speaking countries to record their religion as "Jedi" or "Jedi Knight" (after the quasi-religious order of Force-attuned knights in the fictional Star Wars universe) on the national census.
  • Jediism
    • Jediism is a non-theistic new religious movement based upon the philosophical and spiritual ideas of the Jedi as depicted in Star Wars media. The real-world Jedi assert the existence of the Force.
  • Jehovah's Witnesses
    • A description of the viewpoints of Jehovah's Witnesses, including their views on Christ, the Holy Spirit, sin, redemption, salvation, and retribution. Written by Christians.
  • Jehovah's Witnesses
    • Information from a mainstream Christian perspective on Jehovah's Witnesses
  • Jehovah's Witnesses
    • The Association of Religion Data Archives' profile for Jehovah's Witnesses, which includes membership statistics, trends, and surveys.
  • Jehovah's Witnesses
    • Wikipedia's page on Jehovah's Witnesses.
  • Jesus Christ
    • A melting pot of Yeshua of Nazareth's (a.k.a. Jesus Christ's) personal teachings, the teachings of Paul, the teachings about Jesus by his disciples and by various groups in primitive Christianity, and the inclusion of Pagan Greek philosophy led to the development of the largest religion in the world: Christianity.
  • Jesus Christ
    • Jesus of Nazareth (c. 5 BC/BCE – c. 30 AD/CE), also referred to as Jesus Christ or simply Jesus, is the central figure of Christianity. Most Christian denominations venerate him as God the Son incarnated and believe that he rose from the dead after being crucified.
  • Jesus Divine Nature
    • Since these are deep mysteries, we should be very careful when studying the Bible, to avoid wrong notions and extreme views. We must not force our personal ideas on the teachings of Scripture.
  • Jewish History
    • Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, religion, and culture. Since Jewish history is over four thousand years long and includes hundreds of different populations, any treatment can only be provided in broad strokes.
  • Jewish Holidays
    • Wikipedia's page on Jewish holidays.
  • Jewish Philosophy
    • Wikipedia's page on Jewish philosophy, which includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism.
  • Jewish Religious Movements
    • Wikipedia's page on Jewish religious movements, which include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times and especially in the modern era among Ashkenazi Jews living in anglophone countries.
  • Jews and Judaism in Christian writings of the second century CE
    • Jews and Judaism in Christian writings of the second century CE
  • Jinja Shinto (Shrine Shinto)
    • The term Jinja (a shrine) is originated in the word Yashiro which means the place for some type of building. In the ancient times, rites were performed outdoors.
  • Jinja Shinto (Shrine Shinto)
    • This is a general term for all the rites and other activities performed by a local community or a kin community mainly in a building called Jinja (or a shrine).
  • John Calvin
    • Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online record
  • John Wyclif
    • At this time arose a reformer of a different kind from any of those who had gone before him. He was a Yorkshireman, named John Wyclif, who had been educated at Oxford, and had become famous there as a teacher of philosophy before he began to show any difference of opinions from those which were common in the Church. Everr since the time when King John disgusted his people by his shameful submission to the pope", there had been a strong feeling against the papacy in England; and it had been provoked more and more, partly because the popes were always drawing money from this country, and thrusting foreigners into the richer places of the English Church.
  • Judaism
    • A very basic introduction to Judaism, covering god, man & the universe, salvation and the afterlife, morals, and worship.
  • Judaism
    • Wikipedia's page on Judaism.
  • Judaism: Beliefs, Practices, Jewish-Christian Relations, News
    • A list of articles on Judaism, including the Old Testament, beliefs, the Holocaust, and anti-semitism
  • Kabbalah
    • Wikipedia's page on Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism.
  • Kami
    • Kami is the Japanese word for the spirits, natural forces, or essence in the Shinto faith. Although the word is sometimes translated as "god" or "deity," some Shinto scholars argue that such a translation can cause a misunderstanding of the term. The wide variety of usage of the word can be compared to the Sanskrit Deva and the Hebrew Elohim, which also refer to God, gods, angels or spirits.
  • Karma
    • A description of karma in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
  • Karma
    • Karma translates literally as action, work, or deed, and can be described as the "moral law of cause and effect". According to the Upanishads an individual, known as the jiva-atma, develops sanskaras (impressions) from actions, whether physical or mental.
  • Karma
    • The Problem of Evil in India. Uses the example of Jainism's belief in non-action as a path toward salvation.
  • Koshitsu Shinto (Imperial Household Shinto)
    • Koshitsu Shinto is a general term for conclave rites performed by the emperor (who is now 'the symbol of the state and of the unity of the people' under the Japanese Constitution) in order to pray myriad deities centering Amaterasu Ohmikami (a goddess who is the ancestral deity of the emperor according to the Japanese myth) and the imperial ancestral deities for a long continuation of the state, for happiness of the people and for world peace, and it has an independent system.
  • Krishna
    • Krishna is a Hindu deity, a "complete" avatar (or "incarnation") of the preserver-god, Vishnu.
  • Kumano Shrine Mandala
    • The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, Gift of Dr. Mortimore D. Sackler, Theresa Sackler and Family, 2006, 2006.521
  • Kundalini
    • The concept of Kundalini comes from yogic philosophy of ancient India and refers to the mothering intelligence behind yogic awakening and spiritual maturation.
  • Kundalini: The Hindu Perspective
    • by Philip St. Romain. Kundalini, a spiritual energy, is thought to emerge from the sleeping body after much meditation and spiritual awakening.
  • Legends of Life and Times of Zarathustra
    • by Ervad Yazdi Maneck Pir. This article is intended to introduce younger readers to Zarathustra, the founder of Zoroastrianism.
  • Life-Death-Rebirth Goddesses
    • Gods and goddesses representing life, death, and rebirth occur in many religions.
  • List of Founders of Religious Traditions
    • This article lists historical figures credited with founding religions or religious philosophies or people who first codified older known religious traditions. It also lists those who have founded a specific major denomination within a larger religion.
  • List of Hindu Festivals
    • The religion of Hinduism has many festivals, including Diwali, Holi, and Durga Puja.
  • Living Openly in Your Place of Worship
    • This is a guide intended to help gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) people of faith worship comfortably in different religious settings.
  • Logic
    • Logical arguments and use of language, fallacies, reasoning, form, and inference.
  • Luther's lavatory thrills experts
    • Archaeologists in Germany say they may have found a lavatory where Martin Luther launched the Reformation of the Christian church in the 16th Century.
  • Mahayana
    • Wikipedia's page on Mahayana Buddhism.
  • Major Branches of Religions Ranked by Number of Adherents
    • There are twelve classical major world religions. These are the religions described most often in surveys of the subject, and studied in World Religion classes (some of them more for historical rather than contemporary reasons).
  • Many Become Atheists After Reading the Bible
    • List of Bible passages that are often misinterpreted or misunderstood.
  • Mariology
    • Mariology is the theological study of Mary, the mother of Jesus. Mariology methodically presents teachings about her to other parts of the faith, such as teachings about Jesus, redemption and grace. Christian Mariology aims to connect scripture, tradition and the teachings of the Church on Mary.
  • Martin Luther
    • Leader of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century in Germany; born at Eisleben, 10 November, 1483; died at Eisleben, 18 February, 1546.
  • Martin Luther (1483-1546)
    • Luther was a German theologian whose writings inspired the Protestant Reformation.
  • Martyrs' Mirror
    • Book written by Tieleman Jansz van Braght, the elder of the Flemish Mennonite congregation at Dordrecht, in 1660 container stories of martyrdom throughout history as well as confession of faith.
  • Mass Dalit conversions in Mumbai
    • Several thousand tribal and Dalit Hindus in India have converted en masse to Buddhism at a ceremony in Mumbai.
  • Mayan Gods and Goddesses
    • The ancient Mayans had a complex pantheon of deities whom they worshipped and offered human sacrifices.
  • Meet the Unitarian Universalists
    • Outline of Unitarian Universalist beliefs. By Jack Mendelsohn
  • Menno Simons
    • Menno Simons (ca. 1496-1561) was the outstanding Anabaptist leader of the Low Countries during the 16th century. His followers became known as Mennonites (Mennisten).
  • Messianic Judaism
    • Messianic Jews follow a Jewish beliefs and practices while maintaining that Jesus of Nazareth is the son of God.
  • Meta-groups, Wings, Families, Denominations, Faith Groups
    • Explanations of the thousands of denominations of Christianity
  • Michael Nielsen's Mirror of "Heaven's Gate"
    • A mirror, or copy, of the Heaven's Gate website created by Michael Nielsen, from the Department of Psychology at Georgia Southern University. Heaven's Gate was a religious group that combined a belief in Christianity with extraterrestrials and UFOs, and in 1997, they committed mass suicide in order to leave their bodies and join the extraterrestrial beings.
  • Middle Knowledge
    • Middle knowledge is best characterized as God’s knowledge of all true counterfactuals of creaturely freedom. This knowledge is seen by its proponents as the key to understanding the compatibility of divine providence and free will.
  • Minzoku Shinto (Folk Shinto)
    • Folk Shinto is a Shinto faith which was customarily practiced by common people without being systematized. Thus it is inseparable from the Shrine Shinto.
  • Missions-The Inquisition
    • Details the period where Spain committed Holocaust atrocities on indigenous Native Americans, particularly in California.
  • Mithraic Mysteries
    • The Mithraic mysteries or mysteries of Mithras (also Mithraism) was a mystery religion centered on the god Mithras, which became popular among the military in the Roman Empire, from the 1st to 4th centuries AD.
  • Mithraism
    • The Mithraic Mysteries or Mysteries of Mithras was a mystery religion practised in the Roman Empire, best attested in Rome and Ostia, Mauretania, Britain and in the provinces along the Rhine and Danube frontier.
  • Modern Materialism
    • From Shattering the Sacred Myths: Analyzes the modern political power struggle and the emergence of secular beliefs like existentialism and humanism.
  • Mormonism
    • A brief introduction to the views of Mormons, including God, Christ, the Holy Spirit, sin, salvation, redemption, and retribution.
  • Mormonism
    • Information from a mainstream Christian perspective on Mormonism and the Book of Mormon
  • Mormonism
    • Wikipedia's page on Mormonism.
  • Mormonism and the American Mainstream
    • By Donald Scott. A brief essay on Mormonism in America, including their doctrine and history and sources of anti-Mormon hostility.
  • Muslim Life in America
    • A glimpse into Muslim life in the United States. Information compiiled in 2002.
  • My First Santeria Reading
    • The story of a man's first experience with Santeria, which takes place in Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
  • Mysticism
    • Wikipedia's page on mysticism.
  • Mythology in Ancient Egypt
    • Egyptian mythology or Egyptian religion is the succession of tentative beliefs held by the people of Egypt for over three thousand years, prior to major exposure to Christianity and Islam.
  • Nation of Islam
    • Wikipedia's page on Nation of Islam.
  • National Profiles
    • Choose a country and read a summary of its religious data, including history, percentage of adherents, and socio-economic factors. From the Association of Religion Data Archives.
  • Native American Religion
    • Wikipedia's page on Native American religion and spirituality.
  • Native American Spirituality
    • Many followers of Native American spirituality, do not regard their spiritual beliefs and practices as a religion in the way in which many Christians do. Their beliefs and practices form a integral and seamless part of their very being.
  • Native Americans
    • A list of several of the main Native American tribes with additional pages on each tribe.
  • Native and Christian
    • A Look at Christianity on Indian Reservations
  • Native and Christian: Mormon and Indian
  • New Religious Movement
    • Wikipedia's page on new religious movements.
  • No Sanctuary: Ongoing Threats to Indigenous Montagnards in Vietnam's Central Highlands
    • Drawing on eyewitness accounts and published sources, this report provides fresh information about ongoing religious and political persecution of Montagnards, or indigenous communities, in Vietnam’s Central Highlands.
  • Nontrinitarianism
    • Nontrinitarianism (or antitrinitarianism) includes all Christian belief systems that reject, wholly or partly, the doctrine of the Trinity, namely, the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases and yet co-eternal, co-equal, and indivisibly united in one essence or ousia.
  • Nothing Higher to Live For: A Buddhist View of Romantic Love
    • A purpose might be a guiding principle, a philosophy, or a value of sovereign importance that informs and directs our activities and thoughts. To have one is to live seriously—though not necessarily wisely—following some track, believing in a hub to the wheeling universe or a sea toward which we flow or an end before which all the hubbub of civilization subsides. What is your purpose, friend, or what should it be?
  • Objects of Worship and Shrine Treasures
    • From the encyclopedia of shinto. Lists all the different objects people worship within this religion.
  • Offerings and Talismans at/in Shinto Shrines
    • From the encyclopedia of shinto. Lists the different talismans and offerings within this religion.
  • On Afterdeath
    • According to the Shinto faith, a human spirit is believed to remain forever like the spirit of Kami does. The spirit, however, is not conceived as a substantial existence.
  • Oratio ad ss. Trinitatem Pro Felici Morte
    • Prayer to the most holy trinity for a happy death.
  • Oratio Dominica
    • This prayer was given to us by our Lord Jesus Christ Himself when the apostles asked Him to teach them how to pray (Mt 6:9-13) and thus the prayer has been a part of the Church since the very beginning. The Didache (1st-2nd century) commends the prayer to be recited by the faithful three times during the day.
  • Order of the Solar Temple
    • The Order of the Solar Temple was a secret society based upon the modern myth of the continuing existence of the Knights Templar. OTS was started by Joseph Di Mambro and Luc Jouret in 1984 in Geneva.
  • Ordination
    • Ordination of ministers is an act of the church in which the minister-elect (or bishop or deacon) receives confirmation to his office by a ceremony of laying on of the hands of a bishop (elder) and the intercession of the congregation, which gives him the right to lead the congregation in worship and life as pastor, to perform the duties of his office, whatever they may be, to preach the Word of God, to perform marriages, to ordain, to administer baptism and communion, to administer discipline, to administer the alms fund, etc.
  • Other Arguments for Atheism
    • An overview of some of the basic arguments for atheism, including the problem of evil, religious diversity, lack of empirical evidence, naturalism, morality, freedom of dogma, the influence of religion on society, the rights of children, God's silence, and reasonable non-belief.
  • Our Reactions to Dukkha
    • Here, bleak and uncompromising, is the First Noble Truth. To understand it "according to reality" is the hard-won privilege of the Stream Winner, the result of earnest contemplation. But it seems possible that we can condition our minds intellectually in such a way that, when the right time comes, the Truth will reveal itself.
  • Our Religion
    • The basics of religion as seen and explored through the Jainist persepctive. About the Jain Religion
  • Our Unitarian Universalist Principles
    • There are seven principles which Unitarian Universalist congregations affirm and promote
  • Paganism
    • Paganism is a blanket term, typically used to refer to polytheistic religious traditions. It is primarily used in a historical context, referring to Greco-Roman polytheism as well as the polytheistic traditions of Europe before Christianization. In a wider sense, extended to contemporary religions, it includes most of the Eastern religions and the indigenous traditions of the Americas, Central Asia, Australia and Africa; as well as non-Abrahamic folk religion in general.
  • Papal Bull Seal
    • The papal seal affixed to most bulls is made of lead and is inscribed with the name of the reigning pope on one side and representations of the heads of St. Peter and St. Paul on the other side.
  • Peace Treaty of Westphalia
    • The term Peace of Westphalia denotes a series of peace treaties signed between May and October of 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Dutch Republic.
  • Pentecost (Whitsunday)
    • A feast of the universal Church which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles, fifty days after the Resurrection of Christ, on the ancient Jewish festival called the "feast of weeks" or Pentecost (Exodus 34:22; Deuteronomy 16:10). Whitsunday is so called from the white garments which were worn by those who were baptised during the vigil; Pentecost ("Pfingsten" in German), is the Greek for "the fiftieth" (day after Easter).
  • People, gods and places
    • This page is taken from the website Assyrian Empire Builders that deals with transcribing ancient Assyrian letters. These names appear in the translations of the royal correspondence. This is a good source for anyone needing a list of Assyrian deities.
  • People's Temple
    • Wikipedia's page on the People's Temple, founded by Jim Jones in 1955.
  • Pesach Journal
    • Pesach, or Passover, is a well-known week-long holiday in Judaism, celebrating the Exodus and freedom of the Jewish slaves from Egypt.
  • Pilgrimage
    • The estimated 80 million people visiting the 2001 Kumbha -mela at Prayag (Allahabad) made it the world's biggest-ever public event. It demonstrated the continuing importance of pilgrimage for the Hindu people. Not all holy sites, however, lie within India. Many Hindus have emigrated and have established their own sacred places, wherever they live. Nonetheless, India remains a special place and Hindus often combine pilgrimage with visits to relatives.
  • Plasmator Hominis Deus
    • This hymn is traditionally sung at Friday Vespers and is used in the Liturgia Horarum at Vespers for Fridays of the first and third weeks of the Psalter during Ordinary Time. Likewise the hymn is also found in the Roman Breviary for Friday Vespers, but under the title of Hominis superne Conditor.
  • Pluralistic Hypothesis and the Problem of Conflicting Truth-Claims
    • How is one to view the myriad of religions that exist in the world today? For many years this question has occupied the attention of philosopher John Hick.
  • Politics and Religion
    • From Shattering the Sacred Myths: Explores the relationship between politics and religion leading up to the rise of the religious right in America and the emergence of political Islam.
  • Popol Vuh
    • The Popol Vuh "Council Book" or "Book of the Community" is a book written in the Classical Quiché language containing mythological narratives and a genealogy of the rulers of the post classic Quiché Maya kingdom of highland Guatemala.
  • Practice Of Nonviolence
    • Nonviolence is an important concept in Jainism. This article lists several types of nonviolence to be mindful of in everyday life.
  • Praecepta Decalogi
    • The ten commandments in Latin.
  • Pride and Conceit
    • If one regards himself superior or equal or inferior by reason of the body that is impermanent, painful and subject to change, what else is it than not seeing reality? Or if one regards himself superior or equal or inferior by reason of feelings, perceptions, volitions or consciousness, what else is it than not seeing reality?
  • Procedures of a Worshipping Rite
    • Shinto is not a religion which controls behaviours of believers according to a doctrine or commandments, but a faith that let people have direct contact with Kami (the deity or the deities) through worship and thus let to try to keep their way of life rightfully and pray for a blessing of Kami.
  • Professio fidei Tridentina
    • The "Professio fidei Tridentina", also known as the "Creed of Pope Pius IV", is one of the four authoritative Creeds of the Catholic Church. It was issued on November 13, 1565 by Pope Pius IV in his bull "Iniunctum nobis" under the auspices of the Council of Trent (1545 - 1563).
  • Pseudepigraph
    • Pseudepigrapha are falsely attributed works, texts whose claimed authorship is unfounded; a work, simply, "whose real author attributed it to a figure of the past."
  • Psychology of Religion
    • Wikipedia's page on the psychology of religion.
  • Purgatory
    • Purgatory is known as the condition or process of purification or temporary punishment.
  • Purusarthas
    • In Hinduism, purusartha refers to a goal, end or aim of human existence.
  • Qabbalah - Kabbalah
    • Kabbalah is the religious mysticism of Judaism.
  • Questions and Answers on Restrictions on Religious Dress and Symbols in Europe
    • Specifically discuses the example of Muslim headscarves and veils, but also discusses religious dress in general.
  • Quicumque
    • The Athanasian Creed, also known as the "Quicumque vult", was formerly recited at the office of Prime on Sundays. It is one of the four authoritative Creeds of the Catholic Church. The Anglican Church and some Protestant Churches also hold it to be authoritative.
  • Quotes for Creation
    • EVOLUTION REQUIRES MORE FAITH THAN CREATION
  • Raëlism
    • Wikipedia's page on Raëlism.
  • Ramayana
    • Wikipedia's page on the Ramayana, an ancient Sanskrit epic.
  • Redemption
    • Various views on redemption from the perspectives of Christianity, Christian Science, Spiritualism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism, Eastern Mysticism, The Way International, Unity, and the Unification Church.
  • Reformed Apologetics
    • Contains articles such as Responses to Richard Dawkins. Unfortunately many of the articles appear to be externally located.
  • Religion and Humanism
    • The Sophists to Secular Humanism
  • Religion in Africa
    • These course notes on Religion in Africa come from a course on Africa in the 19th century at St. Mary's University.
  • Religion in Ancient Greece
    • Wikipedia's page on religion in Ancient Greece.
  • Religion in Ancient Rome
    • Wikipedia's page on religion in Ancient Rome.
  • Religion of the Forest
    • Shinto, the indigenous religion of Japan, can be characterized by the fact that it has kept the religious vision of the ancient Japanese until nowadays without changing it very much.
  • Religion, Women, and the Family in Early America
    • By Christine Leigh Heyrman. Many scholars underscore the importance of religious belief in shaping early Americans’ most intimate relationships, those between parents and children, husbands and wives.
  • Religion's Role in the Terrorist Attack of September 11, 2001
    • The central role of religion in the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, D.C., is addressed. The terrorists were motivated by a militant fundamentalist worldview, which rejects modernism. According to Osama bin Laden, corrupt Western values and mores are not to be tolerated, making attacks justified. Religion's role in coping with the attacks also is described using Pargament's theoretical framework.
  • Religious Conversion
    • Wikipedia's article on religious conversion, the adoption of a new religion that differs from the convert's previous religion.
  • Religious Persecution in Tibet
    • It is impossible to understand religious persecution in Tibet without understanding the political context in which it occurs and the political apparatus that the Chinese government uses to maintain control in Tibet.
  • Religious Pluralism in the Middle Colonies
    • By Patricia U. Bonomi. Historians conventionally note that early New England’s religious character was shaped primarily by English Puritans, and the religious character of the South by English Anglicans. But no two-word phrase can capture the essence of those who set the mold for Middle Colony religious culture.
  • Religious Society of Friends
    • Wikipedia's page on the Religious Society of Friends, or Quakers.
  • Replacing Religion with Science
    • From Shattering the Sacred Myths: Looks at the failures of Christianity and considers the issues that need to be addressed before religion can be replaced by the scientific worldview.
  • Resurrection
    • Most Christians believe that Jesus was executed in Jerusalem by the Roman occupying army circa 30 CE, and that a miracle happened about a day and a half later: he was bodily resurrected. This is one of their cardinal beliefs.
  • Retribution
    • Views on retribution from the perspectives of Christianity, Christian Science, Spiritualism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism, Eastern Mysticism, The Way International, Unity, and the Unification Church.
  • Revenge in the Name of Religion: The Cycle of Violence in Plateau and Kano States
    • This report provides the first detailed analysis of clashes between Muslims and Christians in northern and central Nigeria and the factors that continue to threaten the stability of central and northern Nigeria. It provides detailed documentation of two major outbreaks of violence in the town of Yelwa, Plateau State, and a reprisal attack in the northern city of Kano.
  • Rig Veda
    • Wikipedia's article on the Rig Veda, an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.
  • Rise of the untouchables
    • As voting takes place in the politically significant Indian state of Uttar Pradesh (UP) some of India's poorest communities are finding a powerful political voice.
  • Rites of Passages
    • Rites of passages begin with Hatsumiya-Mode
  • Ritual Implements and Vestments at/in Shinto Shrines
    • From the ecyclopedia of shinto.
  • Roman Gods and Goddesses
    • At the founding of Rome, the gods were 'numina', divine manifestations, faceless, formless, but no less powerful. The idea of gods as anthropomorphized beings came later, with the influence from Etruscans and Greeks, which had human form. Some of the Roman Gods are at least as old as the founding of Rome.
  • Sacrament
    • A sacrament, as defined in Hexam's Concise Dictionary of Religion, is what Roman Catholics believe to be "a rite in which God is uniquely active." Augustine of Hippo defined a Christian sacrament as "a visible sign of an invisible reality."
  • Sacrament
    • The word "sacrament" came into usage in the church's vocabulary because the church of the West translated the word "mystery" used by the Greek Mystery Religions for their initiatory rites with the word sacramentum and applied it to baptism and the Lord's Supper. As is the case with many other terms in Western Christendom, the man mainly responsible for its adoption into Christianity is Tertullian. The term had a legal and military connotation and involved the idea of commitment or responsibility, often being used for an oath.
  • Sacramentology
    • Articles on the sacraments from a Reformed persepective.
  • Sacred Spaces in Shinto
    • Shinto-"the way of the kami"- is rooted deeply in pre-historic Japanese religious and agricultural practices. The term kami can refer to Japanese mythological deities, but also can mean divinity manifested in natural objects, places, animals, and even human beings. Shinto rituals and celebrations stress harmony between deities, man, and nature -- a key feature of Japanese religious life and art to the present time.
  • Sakti, Suffering, and Power
    • Hindu culture conceives of self-sacrifice as a form of power. The submissive feminine role has more complexity than in the West. In fact, according to Margaret Egnor, a special, positive power comes from suffering. The goddess Sakti embodies this power; action of this sort is considered inherently female.
  • Salvation
    • Salvation: Historic and current Christian beliefs
  • Salvation
    • The basic elements of the historical teaching of the Christian church on salvation are reiterated by the Anabaptists: that all people have sinned in Adam and are therefore unworthy of the favor of God; that through the death of Christ the way of salvation is provided for all; that the way of salvation is effective only if and when individuals respond appropriately. If there is a major divergence theologically between Anabaptists and other Christians, it focuses on the way in which Anabaptists generally understand the last of these elements, the human response. This will be discussed below.
  • Salvation
    • Views on salvation from the perspective of Christianity, Christian Science, Spiritualism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism, Eastern Mysticism, The Way International, Unity, and the Unification Church
  • Salvation and the Afterlife
    • Views on salvation and the afterlife from the perspectives of Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. Written from a Christian perspective.
  • Salvation is God's work
    • "Salvation belongs to the Lord" (Psalm 3:8). When someone appeals to God and seeks forgiveness in Jesus, his sins are removed, he is cleansed, his relationship with God is restored, and he is made a new creature (2 Cor. 5:17). All of this is the work of God, not man.
  • Santeria
    • Wikipedia's page on the religion of Santeria.
  • Santeria: a Syncretistic African/Roman Catholic Religion
    • Terminology, beliefs and practices, and conflicts
  • Satanism
    • Satanism is a religion that is composed of a diverse number of ideological and philosophical beliefs and social phenomena. Their shared feature include symbolic association with, admiration for the character of, and even veneration for Satan or similar rebellious, promethean, and liberating figures.
  • Science and Islam
    • In Saudi Arabia, a new university seeks to rekindle the prominence of science in the Islamic world
  • Science and Religion
    • In public discussions of evolution and creationism, we are sometimes told by creationists and opponents of religion alike that we must choose between belief in creation and acceptance of the theory of evolution, between religion and science. Is this a fair demand? Is the choice that stark? Can one believe in God and accept evolution? Can one both accept what science teaches and engage in religious belief and practice?
  • Science and Religion: An Electronic Discussion
    • How compatible are science and religion? People have many different perspectives on this question. This is a transcription of a discussion among several people who teach psychology.
  • Scientific Accuracies of the Bible
    • Many people doubt the Bible for various reasons. One of them is that the Bible is not accurate scientifically, but this just isn't so. The Bible is not a book about science, but when it does speak scientifically, it is accurate. In fact, it was far ahead of any other writing of its time. Please consider the following:
  • Scientific Humanism and the Humanist Manifestos
    • Secular Humanism is a non-theistically based philosophy which promotes humanity as the measure of all things. It had its roots in the rationalism of the 18th Century and the free thought movement of the 19th Century.
  • Scientology
    • Wikipedia's page on Scientology.
  • Septem Sacramenta
    • The seven sacraments.
  • Septuagint
    • The first translation of the Hebrew Old Testament, made into popular Greek before the Christian era.
  • Seventh Day Adventism
    • information on Seventh Day Adventism from a mainstream Christian perspective
  • Sex Praecepta Ecclesiae
    • The six precepts of the Church come from Canon Law and are a summary of the duties of all Catholics. The list varies from region to region. This list is the one for the United States.
  • Sexual Morality
    • From Shattering the Sacred Myths: Looks at sexual morality from an evolutionary point of view and condemns the traditional religions for their positions on women's rights and birth control.
  • Shavuot
    • Shavuot is a Jewish holiday that occurs on the sixth day of the Hebrew month of Sivan (late May or early June). Shavuot commemorates the anniversary of the day God gave the Torah to the entire Israelite nation assembled at Mount Sinai, although the association between the giving of the Torah (Matan Torah) and Shavuot is not explicit in the Biblical text.
  • Shavuot Journal
    • Shavout is the Jewish holiday that celebrates when God gave the Israelites the book of the Torah at Mount Sinai.
  • Shinto
    • Outlines the basic beliefs, forms, and practices of Shinto
  • Shinto
    • Wikipedia's page on the religion of Shinto.
  • Shinto Priesthood
    • After the Meiji era, when Japan opened the door to the west in order to exchange with them officially, the hereditary system of the Shinto priesthood was abolished, although there still exist some shrines for which priests who have a certain family background can exclusively serve.
  • Should Women Be Pastors and Elders?
    • In a social climate of complete equality in all things, the biblical teaching of only allowing men to be pastors and elders is not popular. Many feminist organizations denounce this position as antiquated and chauvinistic. In addition, many Christian churches have adopted the "politically correct" social standard and have allowed women pastors and elders in the church. But the question remains, is this biblical?
  • Shrine Architecture
    • Because shrine grounds or precincts (keidai) are considered sacred, some kind of separating device is used to demarcate the shrine grounds from outside "profane" areas.
  • Shrine Economics
    • From the encyclopedia of Shinto. Lists the different forms of shrines and what each one deals with.
  • Shrines and Cultic Practices
    • From the encyclopedia of Shinto. Lists the different shrines and how and why to worship them.
  • Shuha Shinto (Sectarian Shinto)
    • Shuha Shinto (Sectarian Shinto) can be classified into two categories: the Sect Shinto and New Sect Shinto.
  • Sign of Disobedience to God
    • The Bible records that sin, suffering and death entered the world because man disobeyed God. The first order God gave to man was a prohibition: he must not eat the fruit of a certain tree. Adam and Eve had just celebrated the first Sabbath, which was a joyous occasion the day after they were created. God had invited them to join the angels in celebrating the completion of His work of creation. "Thus the heavens and the earth, and all the host of them, were finished. And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which He had done. Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which God had created and made." Gen. 2:1-3.
  • Signum Crucis
    • The Sign of the Cross is not only an action, but a statement of faith itself. In this simple gesture one is not only making a sign of our redemption, the Cross, but is also expressing faith in the Blessed Trinity.
  • Sikhism
    • Articles on the origins, beliefs, practices, and symbols of Sikhism
  • Sikhism
    • Short articles on Sikhism: History, Size & Location, Origins, Holy Texts, Sikhs Believe In, Practices, The Gods, Worship, The Organisation
  • Sikhism
    • Wikipedia's page on Sikhism.
  • Sikhism: Conflict Over Carrying a Ceremonial Knife
    • Many Sikhs follow specific clothing practices, which includes the wearing of a ceremonial knife, called a kirpan.
  • Simplicity
    • Simplicity, a Christian virtue stressed by the Anabaptists and the Mennonites, closely related to sincerity, humility, and forthrightness, and applying to many aspects of life, including the manner of address and communication, forms of worship and type of meetinghouse, character of homes and furniture, costume, etc.
  • Sin
    • Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971) was fond of saying that the Christian doctrine of sin is the most empirical of all doctrines. The reality of sin needs no proof. It is demonstrated again and again in our human experience: we both sin against others and are sinned against. But what is sin essentially? And what is its source or origin? its symptoms? What is meant by original sin? This article will attempt to answer some of these questions from the perspective of the Bible and historical theology, the latter including especially Anabaptism.
  • Sin
    • Views on sin from the perspectives of Christianity, Christian Science, Spiritualism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism, Eastern Mysticism, The Way International, Unity, Unification Church
  • Singing, Old Order Amish
    • Old Order Amish singing in worship. In their regular biweekly worship service most of the Old Order Amish use the Ausbund exclusively. The hymnbooks are the property of the congregation and are gathered by the oldest hymn leader after each service and carried home in a satchel-like box. For the next service he selects the hymn sung traditionally with the Scripture suitable for that season of the year.
  • Singings, Amish
    • Amish singings, is the name usually given to the Sunday evening gatherings of the Old Order Amish young people. (There are some "old folks' singings" for the purpose of transmitting the unwritten chants used in Amish church services.) The young people's singings are of long standing; they were begun to provide an activity of Christian fellowship for the young people.
  • Sins and the Concept of Shinto Ethics
    • Shinto was originally a natural religion which became into existence in a village community. So, the concept of a sin or of ethics is also formed according to the value system of the community: that is to wish prosperous continuation and development of the community. It is the same consciousness to hold rites and festivals.
  • Sketches of Church History
    • From the Age of the Apostles to Missions-The Inquisition
  • Snake-bird gods fascinated both Aztecs and Ancient Egyptians
    • Ancient Mexicans and Egyptians who never met and lived centuries and thousands of miles apart both worshiped feathered-serpent deities, built pyramids and developed a 365-day calendar.
  • Society and New Religious Movements
    • I was prompted to write this by the British Broadcasting Corporation, as part of their Have Words television program. This is a weekly series which promotes discussion of current issues. The issue for the week of July 12, 1999, is the London International Church of Christ, a new religious movement that frequently finds itself at the heart of controversy.
  • Sodom and Gommorah
    • archaeological article
  • Some Theories on the Origins of Religion
    • Information on faith-based and secular-based theories on the origins of religion.
  • Soteriology
    • The study of religious doctrines of salvation.
  • Soulful Journeys: The Faith of African American Unitarian Universalists
    • Personal stories from African American Unitarian Universalists. Edited by Mel Hoover and Jacqui James
  • Speaking in tongues
    • Christian practices and information: Salvation, baptism of the Holy Spirit, and speaking in tongues.
  • Specific Similarities Between the Lives of Jesus and Krishna
    • Were the stories of the Christian deity Jesus copied from the stories of the Hindu deity Krishna?
  • Splendor Paternae Gloriae
    • Written by St. Ambrose (340-397), this hymn is a companion hymn to his Aeternae rerum Conditor. Splendor paternae gloriae is a beautiful morning hymn asking for help and guidance throughout the day. It is directed to the Trinity, and especially to Christ as the light of the world. The hymn is traditionally sung at Monday Lauds and is used in the Liturgia Horarum at Lauds for Monday of the first and third weeks of the Psalter during Ordinary Time.
  • Study 1 – The Bible
    • The simple answer is that the Bible claims to be God speaking to us. When it comes to deciding what is true we are confused by many competing claims and so we begin to doubt that there is such a thing as 'truth' - 'Isn't it all a matter of opinion,' we say.
  • Study 10 – Heaven and Hell
    • In this study we will deal with three things: (1) Christ's Second Coming; (2) Heaven; (3) Hell
  • Study 12 – Baptism and the Lord's Supper
    • The two things commanded by Christ as a sign and seal of his work are Baptism and the Lord's Supper. They are each termed an ordinance (something commanded by Christ), or sacrament (oath or pledge).
  • Study 2 – The Living God
    • Why is knowing God important? In the group ask this question and listen to the answers. If you are doing this course on your own write down why it is important. Then look up John 17:3 and see what Jesus says.
  • Study 3 - Jesus Christ
    • Christians are followers of Christ ( he is the central character of our faith so it is important we understand who he is.
  • Study 4 – Man, Our True Nature
    • True knowledge of ourselves destroys self confidence' - John Calvin. How do you see man? Is he basically good, or bad? Perhaps one of the most important things we need to know is the truth about ourselves. Man is made by God and therefore each person has dignity and worth.
  • Study 5 – God's Work in Salvation
    • The phrase, 'God saves sinners,' sums up the Bible's teaching on how God rescues those trapped by sin. God saves. He sent Christ. He calls men to Christ. He did not just provide a way for sinners to be saved, but actually saves men and women. An illustration of a drowning man God doesn't just throw a life belt but lays hold of the man and pulls him into the life boat.
  • Study 6 – Christ's Death and Resurrection
    • These two historical events are at the centre of the Christian faith.
  • Study 7 – The Holy Spirit: His Person and Work
    • This is only the briefest outline. Before we start, write down a list of what comes to mind when you hear the words 'Holy Spirit'. This study concentrates on the central features of the Holy Sprit's person and work.
  • Study 8 – Saving Faith
    • We have seen the Father's electing love, the Son's redemptive work and the Holy Spirit's task of applying that to us. We need now to look at the effects on us. We are going to look at saving faith. Faith is the chief gift of the Holy Spirit. By faith we are united to Christ and all the benefits of Christ's work become ours. Becoming a Christian is something which has far reaching effects. It is often called conversion.
  • Study 9 – Living the Christian Life
    • What is the aim of the Christian life? What is holiness or the process of holiness, sanctification? This process of sanctification is like a three stage rocket (1) Lift-off ( once for all radical break with sin). (2) Progress ( the fight to be rid of the remains of sin as we live this life. (3) Arrival ( freedom from all sin in heaven (glorification).
  • Subclasses Of Karma
    • Selections from Uttaraadyayan Sutra
  • Suffering
    • For the Anabaptists suffering was (1) being in Christ. Suffering denoted following Christ, being engraved into Christ, participating with him in life in the most intimate possible manner. They expressed gratitude to him, joy in participating with him in suffering, obedience to his commands including taking up the cross (Philippians 2:8). Their theology was essentially christological.
  • Sufism
    • Wikipedia's page on Sufism, Islamic mysticism.
  • Sumerian Gods and Goddesses
    • Information about Sumerian Gods and Goddesses is found on the Sumerian King List as well as Sumerian clay tablets and cylinder seals. The Sumerian King List records all the rulers of Earth back over 400,000 years. This huge stretch of time coupled with reigns into the thousands of years has caused most historians to reject its accuracy. However all the early rulers were allegedly gods - demi-gods or immortals.
  • Supernatural Entities & Human Leaders
    • Articles on the supernatural and human entities of Christianity, including demons, God, Satan, Yesuha, Barnabas, Judas, Mary, St. Nicholas, and Valentine
  • Swami
    • A swami is known as a Hindu monastic.
  • Symbola
    • There are three early Creeds, or Professions of Faith as they are also known, that are considered official in the Catholic Church; the Nicene Creed, the Athanasian Creed and the Apostles' Creed. These three creeds form an important statement about what we as Catholics believe.
  • Symbols
    • Symbols are words, images, sounds, objects, concepts, or actions which represent some other entities or realities. They have the power to unite different human feelings, thoughts, and experiences into coherent meanings. Symbols are polyvalent, carrying multiple meanings, and must be distinguished from signs.
  • Symbolum Apostolorum
    • The present form of the Apostles' Creed first appears in the 6th century in the writings of Caesarius of Arles (d 542). However, it can be traced in one form or another back to Apostolic times.
  • Symbolum Nicaenum
    • The Symbolum Nicaenum, or Nicene Creed, has a complex history. It was first promulgated at the Council of Nicea (325), though in an abbreviated form from what we have below. St. Athanasius attributes its composition to the Papal Legate to the Council, Hossius of Cordova.
  • Syncretism
    • Syncretism may involve attempts to merge and analogise several originally discrete traditions, especially in the theology and mythology of religion, and thus assert an underlying unity allowing for an inclusive approach to other faiths.
  • Tantra Healing
    • With Tantra, an energy is released that is evolutionary and "upwardly motivated." We can learn to use this energy for pleasure, for achieving our worldly goals, and for aiding our spiritual evolution.
  • Tantric sex
    • Tantra is found in advanced Hindu, Vajrayāna Buddhist, and other religious practices throughout Asia. It is an ancient ritual involving extensive preparation and prior education by the practitioners under the close direction of their guru (teacher).
  • Taoism
    • Wikipedia's page on Taoism.
  • Taoism (a.k.a. Daoism)
    • Articles on texts, Tai Chi, practices, and history
  • Tarikats (Religious Injunctions) In Zarathustri Religion
    • Tarikats are the foundation pillars of Zarathustri religion.
  • Te Deum
    • Te Deum, also sometimes called the Ambrosian Hymn because if its association with St. Ambrose, is a traditional hymn of joy and thanksgiving. First attributed to Sts. Ambrose, Augustine, or Hilary, it is now accredited to Nicetas, Bishop of Remesiana (4th century).
  • Tertullian
    • A prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa. He is the first Christian author to produce an extensive corpus of Latin Christian literature. He also was a notable early Christian apologist and a polemicist against heresy.
  • Testimony of Simplicity
    • Testimony of Simplicity is a shorthand description of the actions generally taken by members of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) to testify or bear witness to their beliefs that a person ought to live his or her life simply in order to focus on what is most important and ignore or play down what is least important.
  • The Eight Limbs, The Core of Yoga
    • A description of the eight limbs of yoga, including yama, niyama, asanas, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana, and samadhi.
  • The "I AM" Sayings Prove Jesus to be Divine
    • Adel Mohammed El Naggar reviews the versus in the Bible in which Jesus asserts "I AM," and which the author claims proves the divinity of Jesus.
  • The American Jewish Experience through the Nineteenth Century: Immigration and Acculturation
    • By Jonathan D. Sarna and Jonathan Golden. A history of Jewish migration through the 19th century.
  • The Amish
    • There is no consensus on exactly where the Amish fit within Christianity: Some consider them conservative Protestants. Most Amish would probably consider themselves to be Anabaptists.
  • The Apostles’ Creed: The Oldest Creed
    • article by James Orr
  • The Ark of the Covenant
    • The Ark of the Covenant is described in the Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the Tablets of stone containing the Ten Commandments as well as Aaron's rod and manna.
  • The Authentic Shinto Faith
    • Having an awe to Kami and revering it as their guardian, the majority of the Japanese has also a warm and close feeling to Kami, and they always wish Kami's protection against any disasters and its grace with divine blessings.
  • The Axial Age(s): Times of Rapid Religious Change
    • From the period of 800-200 B.C.E. many major world religions came into being, including Buddhism, Confucianism, Hinduism, Jainism, Judaism, and Taoism.
  • The Bhagavad Gita
  • The Bhikkhus' Rules: A Guide for Laypeople
    • Buddhist friends in Malaysia asked me to explain something about the Vinaya rules that guide the Buddhist monk's life — in particular about monks or bhikkhus of the Theravaada lineage. We monks already have several learned texts in English to help us so a simplified 'lay person's guide' now seems in order.
  • The Bible
    • The Bible is the most widely printed and published book in the world. It is the source of the Christian religion and contains what Christians need to know about God, Jesus, salvation, and the Christian life. The Bible is a wonderful book of wisdom and revelation.
  • The Black Stone of Mecca
    • The Black Stone is a Muslim object of reverence, which according to Islamic tradition dates back to the time of Adam and Eve. Many consider it to be a Tektite. It is the eastern cornerstone of the Kaaba, the ancient sacred stone building towards which Muslims pray, in the center of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
  • The Blessed Virgin Mary
    • The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God. In general, the theology and history of Mary the Mother of God follow the chronological order of their respective sources, i.e. the Old Testament, the New Testament, the early Christian and Jewish witnesses.
  • The Character of God in the Qur'an
    • Written by Kile Jones. Explains several qualities of Allah, including omnipotence, love and light, and unity.
  • The Christian Attitude Toward Non-Christian Religions
    • Three perspectives of attitudes Christians have toward other world religions, including pluralism, exclusivism, and inclusivism. Written by Christians and intended for Christians.
  • The Church of Christ, Scientist (a.k.a. Christian Science)
    • Christian Science is a Christian denomination based on the teachings and works of Christ Jesus. The Church was founded in 1879 by Mary Baker Eddy.
  • The Concept of Kami
    • In Shinto, there is no faith in the concept of the absolute one god who is the creator of both nature and human beings.
  • The Council of Nicaea
    • from the Sketches of Chruch History
  • The Council of Trent
    • The canons and decrees of the sacred and oecumenical Council of Trent, that rejected the Protestant Reformation.
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls
    • The Dead Sea Scrolls are a collection of just under 900 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea in Israel.
  • The Easter Season
    • Easter or Resurrection Sunday is the day Christians celebrate the resurrection of Jesus the Christ from the dead. Even before theologians explained the death of Jesus in terms of various atonement theories, the early church saw his resurrection as the central witness to a new act of God in history and the victory of God in vindicating Jesus as the Messiah. This event marks the central faith confession of the early church and was the focal point for Christian worship, observed on the first day of each week since the first century (Acts 20:7; Sunday was officially proclaimed the day of Christian worship in AD 321). Easter as an annual celebration of the Resurrection that lies at the center of a liturgical year has been observed at least since the fourth century. Even in churches that traditionally do not observe the other historic seasons of the church year, Easter has occupied a central place as the high point of Christian worship.
  • The Epics
  • The First Crusade
    • The popes who came next after Gregory VII carried things with a high hand, following the example which he had set them. They got the better of Henry IV, but in a way which did them no credit. For when Henry had returned from Italy to his own country, and had done his best, by many years of good government, to heal the effects of the long, troubles of Germany, the popes encouraged his son Conrad, and after Conrad's death, his younger son Henry, to rebel against him.
  • The Flower Communion
    • Celebrating Flower Communion is an excellent opportunity for Unitarian Universalist (UU) congregations to express their commitment to our Sixth Principle: We Covenant to Affirm and Promote the Goal of World Community with Peace, Liberty and Justice for All.
  • The Flower Communion
    • Service of Celebration for Religious Liberals by by Reginald Zottol, detailing the opening words, the songs, communion, etc.
  • The Foreign Missionary Movement in the 19th and early 20th Centuries
    • By Daniel H. Bays. A history of the Protestant missionary movement in the United States.
  • The Foundations of Value, Part I
    • Logical Issues: Justification, First Principles, and Socratic Method. Justifying beliefs based on the teachings of Plato, Aristotle, Hume, Kant, Fries, & Nelson.
  • The Four Ashrams
    • Ashram means "a place of spiritual shelter." Each stage of life is not only a natural part of the journey from cradle to grave, but a time at which spirituality can be developed.
  • The Four Main Denominations
    • Classifying the many groups within Hinduism is a challenge, and not so easy (as, perhaps, with other religions.) In so doing, we may inadvertently promote the idea that Hinduism is a single monolithic religion. It is, more accurately, a family of religions, with each family member autonomous but sharing distinctive family features.
  • The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism
    • A description of the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path
  • The Four Varnas
    • Although every Hindu must follow general moral codes, each has individual duties according to his or her own nature. These are called sva-dharma, literally "own duties." They are regulated by the system of four varnas (social classes) and four ashrams (stages of life).
  • The Geneva Bible: The Forgotten Translation
    • When Mary Tudor (Bloody Mary) became queen of England in 1553, she was determined to roll back the Reformation and reinstate Roman Catholicism. Mary had strong ties to Catholic Spain. She married Philip II of Spain and induced the English Parliament to recognize the authority of papal Rome. Mary met with a great deal of resistance from Protestant reformers in her own country. Mary showed no signs of compromise. The persecution of Protestants followed.
  • The God of Christianity
    • The term "trinity" implies a grouping of three. In religious usage, "trinity" generally refers to a group of three deities -- or three aspects of a single deity -- who exist in a special relationship with each other.
  • The Great Schism
    • Gregory XI died in 1378, and the choice of a successor to him was no easy matter. The Romans were bent on having a countryman of their own, that they might be sure of his continuing to live among them.
  • The Heart of the Prajna Paramita Sutra
    • The Heart Sutra is an important text of Mahayana Buddhism. Its mantra "gate gate pa-ra gate parasam gate bodhi sva-ha" can be translated as "gone, gone, gone beyond. Gone utterly beyond. Oh what an Awakening!"
  • The Hebrew Scriptures (a.k.a. The Old Testament)
    • These articles describe the Hebrew Scriptures, including the Apocrypha
  • The Hindu Calendar
    • The Hindu calendar is based on lunar months corresponding to the phases of the moon. In one year there are twelve months of 29.5 days, accounting for a total of 354 days.The shortfall means that the date of each festival moves back 11 days each year. To rectify this, an extra leap month is added about once every three years. The Hindu calendar is therefore luni-solar, with a precise month and an approximate year.
  • The Hindu Varna System
  • The History of Ancient Israel
    • From Shattering the Sacred Myths: The most probable history of ancient Israel from the Iron Age to the destruction of Jerusalem in the war against Rome.
  • The Human Nature of Jesus
    • The first woman was also the first sinner, used by Satan to tempt man to sin, thereby opening the floodgates of woe. So God would use the Seed of the woman to close these floodgates. Matt. 1:1-16 lists Jesus` genealogy. According to Jewish custom, their genealogies do not list women`s names, yet Jesus' genealogy has four names of women, three of which had tempted men to sin. The Holy Spirit inspired the inclusion of their names to stress the fact that Jesus` human nature was fallen like ours.
  • The Jesse Tree
    • While nearly everyone has a Christmas tree, there has been reluctance in some circles to incorporate Christmas trees into the church sanctuary, arising from suspicions about the pagan origin of the symbol. However, since the Christmas tree has become such a part of Christmas celebration around the world, it seems more important to give it some clearly Christian meaning.
  • The Kant-Friesian Theory of Religion and Religious Value
    • Including Kant, Fries, Schopenhauer, Nelson, Otto, Jung, & Eliade
  • The Last Supper
    • According to Christian belief, The Last Supper is the final meal that Jesus Christ shared with his Twelve Apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper provides the scriptural basis for the ceremony known as "the Eucharist", "communion" or "the Lord's Supper."
  • The Law of Karma
    • The law of karma underpins the process of transmigration of the soul. Karma literally means "action," but more often refers to the accumulated reactions to activities. Thus we talk of "good karma" and "bad karma," which are stored reactions that gradually unfold to determine our unique destiny.
  • The Laws of Manu on Women
    • The Laws of Manu are one of the three major Dharma Sastras whose authorship in attributed to Manu, a Hindu Lawmaker (Neufeldt 144; Kumar 207). The text is also known as Manusmrti or Manavadharmasastra and is often referred to as simply Manu. The Laws of Manu are comprehensive set of codices that outline dharmic practices; many scholars refer to them as legal codices (Monius 334). This particular text is widely used by orthodox Hindus as instruct their day to day lives. This practice became even more wide spread after the British came into power in India as the Laws of Manu were implemented at a state level as a way of handling legal issues with the Hindu population (Mitra, 78).
  • The Laws of the Festivals, by Rav David Brofsky
    • A collection of lectures on the laws of various Jewish holidays
  • The Legacy of Puritanism
    • By Emory Elliott. The purpose of this essay is to trace the effects of seventeenth-century New England Puritanism upon the development of the United States of America.
  • The Lutheran Confessions: What Are They?
  • The Major Egyptian Books of the Underworld
    • Information on the Amduat, Pyramid Text, The Book of the Dead, Coffin Text, The Book of Caverns, The Book of Gates, Litany of Re, Books of the Heavens, and The Book of the Heavenly (Celestial) Cow
  • The Making and Unmaking of Prejudice: An Interchange between Psychology and Religion
    • Research on the psychology of religion provides insight into which characteristics of religious people are associated with more tolerant behavior. This paper argues that contemplative traditions, such as mindfulness meditation in Buddhism, can become a valuable spiritual resource in fostering the ideal of unconditional love.
  • The Metamorphosis of Judas Iscariot
    • In the gospel of Mark, regarded by most scholars as the earliest and most historically authentic of the four gospels, we find Jesus saying go thy way, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven... hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God (10,21).
  • The New Friesian Theory of Religious Value
    • Based on the teachings of Nelson and Otto
  • The Olympians
    • The Twelve Olympians, in Greek mythology, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus.
  • The Passion of the Christ by Mel Gibson
    • Reasons why it is an invalid gospel medium
  • The Pentecostal Group of Denominations
    • The Pentecostal family of denominations form one branch of conservative Protestantism within Christianity. A major defining feature of Pentecostalism is their belief in Glossolalia -- the ability to speak "in tongues". Another is the unusual freedom and spontaneity exhibited during their religious services.
  • The Philosophy of Religion
    • Wikipedia's page on the philosophy of religion: a branch of philosophy concerned with questions regarding religion, including the nature and existence of God, the examination of religious experience, analysis of religious language and texts, and the relationship of religion and science.
  • The Plurality Study
    • The following study is an interesting examination of theophanies. A theophany is an appearance of God. God appears in the Old Testament in different ways: as an angel of the Lord (Acts 7:30-32; Exodus 3:2; Judges 2:1), apparently in physical form (Gen. 3:8; Exodus 24:9-11), in visions and dreams (Num. 12:6-8), and in flame (Judges 13:20-21). However, there are verses that say that you can't see God: Exodus 33:20; John 1:18). If this is so, then is there a contradiction in the Bible? No, there isn't.
  • The Pope
    • From the Catholic Encyclopedia: The pope is the head of the Catholic church
  • The Protestant Reformation
    • Wikipedia's page on the Protestant Reformation.
  • The Quaker Testimonies
    • A short description of some of the Quaker Testimonies, or beliefs, such as truth and integrity, equality and community, simplicity, peace, and the earth and environment.
  • The Rainbow People
    • Introducing the concepts of spirituality to children from an Indian perspective
  • The Rastafari Movement
    • Wikipedia's page on the Rastafari Movement.
  • The Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist
    • In this article we shall consider: the fact of the Real Presence, which is, indeed, the central dogma; the several allied dogmas grouped about it, namely: Totality of Presence, Transubstantiation, Permanence of Presence and the Adorableness of the Eucharist the speculations of reason, so far as speculative investigation regarding the august mystery under its various aspects is permissible, and so far as it is desirable to illumine it by the light of philosophy.
  • The Reformation
    • The usual term for the religious movement which made its appearance in Western Europe in the sixteenth century, and which, while ostensibly aiming at an internal renewal of the Church, really led to a great revolt against it, and an abandonment of the principal Christian beliefs.
  • The Religious Society of Friends: The Quakers
    • This webpage describes the history, beliefs, practices, and the Quaker Meeting of Quakers, also known as the Society of Friends.
  • The Revised Common Lectionary
    • a service of the Vanderbilt Divinity Library
  • The Rise of Modern Science
    • From Shattering the Sacred Myths: The problems faced by scientifically-minded people as the western world struggled to emerge from the Christian dark ages.
  • The Seasons of the Church Year
    • We keep track of time and seasons of the year by using calendars that provide us opportunities to observe, commemorate, and celebrate certain events or occasions. The changing seasons of the year also provide us with recurring opportunities to celebrate the Christian Faith in worship. The Christian church, following earlier Jewish tradition, has long used the seasons of the year as an opportunity for festivals and holidays, sacred time set aside to worship God as the Lord of life.
  • The Separation of Church and State from the American Revolution to the Early Republic
    • By Christine Leigh Heyrman. A short history of the ideas behind the separation of church and state in the United States.
  • The Seven Factors of Enlightenment
    • In the Book of the Kindred Sayings, V (Saíyutta Nikáya, Mahá Vagga) we find a special section under the title Bojjhaóga Saíyutta wherein the Buddha discourses on the bojjhaógas in diverse ways. In this section we read a series of three discourses or sermons recited by Buddhists since the time of the Buddha as a protection (paritta or pirit) against pain, disease, and adversity.
  • The Shroud of Turin
    • The Shroud of Turin (or Turin Shroud) is an ancient linen cloth bearing the image of a man who appears to have been physically traumatized in a manner consistent with crucifixion. Some believe it is the cloth that Jesus was wrapped in after his crucifixion, while others believe it to be a hoax.
  • The Syncretism of the Gods
    • In order to understand the gods of ancient Egypt, one must understand syncretism. This is the Egyptian practice of linking, or combining different deities into the body or identity of a single entity (often, but not always with a composite form), which became more and more common with the passage of time.
  • The Teachings of Babaji
    • Compiled by Vladimir Antonov. This book presents the readers with the Teaching about the Path to the Spiritual Perfection of the Avatar (Messiah, Embodiment of God) Babaji from Haidakhan (India).
  • The Ten Commandments (a.k.a. The Decalogue)
    • Three versions of the Decalogue: Exodus 20, Exodus 34, and Deuteronomy 5, all contained in the Old Testament of the Bible
  • The Ten Commandments: Many Topics, Viewpoints & Interpretations
    • The 10 Commandments from the Old Testament of the Bible are interpreted differently depending on one's tradition
  • The Titans
    • In Greek mythology, the 12 Titans gods, also known as the elder gods, ruled the Earth before the Olympians overthrew them.
  • The Tri-Wizard Cup: Alchemy and Transformation in Harry Potter
    • J.K. Rowling was inspired by alchemy to help her enrich the Harry Potter series, and the use of alchemical symbolism is especially prevalent in the fourth book, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. As Harry unexpectedly participates in the Tri-Wizard Tournament, he undergoes an alchemical process, helping to transform him into the hero who will defeat Lord Voldemort at the close of the series. PDF and HTML formats.
  • The Virtues of Godlessness
    • The least religious nations are also the most healthy and successful. Is this true? By Phil Zuckerman, 2009.
  • The World Factbook - Religions
    • From the World Factbook, this article gives a short description of several religions and a country comparison.
  • The Yearly Round of Observances:
    • The Yearly Round of Observances starts with the New Year's Festival.
  • Theories of Creation
    • Creation theories from science, mathematics, religion, and mythology
  • Theory and History of Ontology
    • The site considers the theory and history of Ontology from a philosophical perspective and the relations between Logic and Ontology from an historical perspective. The Table of Ontologists traces the main intellectual links from the major ontologists of Nineteenth century (Bernard Bolzano, Franz Brentano, and Gottlob Frege) to contemporary thinkers.
  • Theravada Buddhism
    • Wikipedia's page on Theravada Buddhism.
  • There Is No Spoon
    • An analysis of the religious and philosophical symbolism and implications of the 1999 movie "The Matrix."
  • Three Aspects of Krishna's Teaching
    • A lecture by V.Antonov on three aspects of Krishna's teachings in the Bhagavad Gita.
  • Tibet
    • A brief overview of Tibet, including history, architecture, art, and religion.
  • Timeline of Christian Missions
    • This timeline of Christian missions chronicles the global expansion of Christianity through a listing of the most important missionary outreach events.
  • Titivillus "The Patron Demon of Scribes"
    • As with even the best of us, minds can wander from time to time and the monks were no exception. When this happened, errors would be introduced into the text. No one likes to take credit for his own mistakes, and true to human nature the monks invented Titivillus.
  • Transcendental Meditation
    • Wikipedia's page on Transcendental Meditation (TM).
  • Transubstantiation
    • Part of the series on Communion also known as The Eucharist, The Lord's Supper, Divine Liturgy, or Sacrament.
  • Trinitarianism
    • The Christian doctrine of the Trinity, one of the most important in mainstream Christian faith, teaches the unity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as three persons in one divine Being, called the Godhead.
  • Trisagium Angelicum
    • This hymn of devotion to the Blessed Trinity is the official prayer of the Order of the Blessed Trinity, otherwise known as the Trinitarians. This devotion has been recited by them and their affiliates for centuries in praise of the Trinity.
  • Two concerns in Hinduism
    • The caste system and the status of women.
  • UFO Religion or Cult
    • UFO religion is an informal term used to describe a religion that equates UFO occupants with gods or other semi-divine beings.
  • Unification Church
    • The Unification Church is a new religious movement founded by Korean religious leader Sun Myung Moon. In 1954, the Unification Church was formally and legally established in Seoul, South Korea, as The Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity (HSA-UWC).
  • Unitarian History
    • Unitarian Universalism is the result of the merger of two separate denominations: Unitarianism and Universalism. Originally, all Unitarians were Christians who did not believe in the Holy Trinity of God (Father, Son, and Holy Ghost). Instead, they believed in the unity, or single aspect, of God.
  • Unitarian Universalism
    • Unitarianism Universalism is an unusual religious organization. Unlike most religions in North America, it does not require its adherents to adhere to a specific set of beliefs.
  • Unitarian Universalism
    • Wikipedia's page on the religion called Unitarian Universalism.
  • Unitarian Universalist Origins: Our Historic Faith
    • Unitarian Universalism is a liberal religious tradition that was formed from the consolidation of two different religions: Unitarianism and Universalism.
  • Unity School of Christianity
    • The Unity School of Christianity is a classic new age cult. It has the appearance of being Christian; however, it holds pantheistic or new age beliefs at its core. Unity was founded by Charles and Myrtle Fillmore in 1889, and was later incorporated as a church in 1903 by the Unity Society of Practical Christianity in Kansas City.
  • Universalist History
    • Unitarian Universalism emerged from two separate denominations: Unitarianism and Universalism. Universalists are Christians who believe in universal salvation, meaning that all people will eventually be reconciled with God.
  • Untouchables
    • The Untouchables Within the Hindu varna (class system) the Untouchables or Candalas are a group of individuals who are regarded as outcastes and contaminating to the other members of society. These individuals live on the outskirts of society and perform “polluting” labours (Rodrigues 114). Due to the nature of their occupations, the Untouchables are not identified with any specific class of Hindu society and are considered outcastes. In both ancient and contemporary India, the Untouchables have struggled to secure their place within Hindu society and fight discrimination.
  • Vajrayana Buddhism
    • Wikipedia's page on Vajrayana Buddhism.
  • Various Beliefs About the Origins & Development of Species, the Earth itself, & the Rest of the Universe
    • The conflicts among evolution, intelligent design, and creation science
  • Varnashrama-dharma and Caste
    • Hinduism has often been termed "a way of life" and in India spirituality is evident wherever one turns. Even the predominant social structure – often considered a mundane concern – is derived from religious sources. The Rig Veda enjoins that human society be divided into four varnas (see The Four Varnas). The revealed nature of "Veda" suggests that the varna system is therefore not man-made but of divine origin. Some traditions therefore conclude that the four varnas are natural divisions, inherent in every human society, and that each varna accommodates the corresponding type of person.
  • Vedas
    • The Vedas, perhaps the oldest written texts on our planet today, are important religious texts in Hinduism.
  • Vedic Hinduism or Brahmanism
    • Wikipedia page on Vedic Hinduism, a historical predecessor of Hinduism.
  • Vedic Knowledge Online
    • This wiki site Veda is dedicated to understanding Sanatana Dharma (eternal way of life), prominently known as Hinduism, the oldest living religion on earth. It covers information related to Hindu (Vedic) concepts, teachings, philosophy, scriptures and everything that we can think of related to the Hindu Dharma.
  • Vedic Religion
  • Vegetarianism in Hinduism
    • A commonly recognized trait of the Hindu tradition is the notion of religious vegetarianism. A major reason that the study of Hindu vegetarianism is of particular interest is that the practice emerged some time prior to the Common Era (Bryant 194).
  • Veni, Sancte Spiritus
    • A traditional prayer asking for the grace of the Holy Spirit. It has been used for centuries as a prayer of private devotion.
  • Veni, Sancte Spiritus
    • Veni, Sancte Spiritus, known as the Golden Sequence, is the sequence for the Mass for Pentecost. It is commonly regarded as one of the greatest masterpieces of sacred Latin poetry ever written. The hymn has been attributed to three different authors, King Robert II the Pious of France, Pope Innocent III, and Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, of which the last is most likely the author.
  • Versions of Hindu History
    • To construct a reliable chronology of Hinduism is challenging
  • Victimae Paschali
    • Victimae Paschali is the Sequence for Easter Sunday.
  • Video Games: Violence In, Violence Out?
    • Is mounting teen violence evidence of the effects of violent video games?
  • Virgin Birth
    • The virgin birth of Jesus: Fact or fable?
  • Virtutes Theologicae
    • The origins of the Theological Virtues lie with Scripture. St. Paul writes in his letter to the Corinthians, "So faith, hope, and love remain, these three; but the greatest of these is love." (1Cor. 13:13). There and throughout Scripture the themes of faith, hope, and love are constantly stressed and thus they have been singled out and given the name 'the Theological Virtues'.
  • Vodun (a.k.a. Voodoo and Related Religions)
    • An article outlining the basic rituals, beliefs, and history of Vodun
  • Waco Siege
    • The name "Branch Davidian" is most widely known for the Waco Siege of 1993 on their property (known as the Mount Carmel Center) near Waco, Texas, by the ATF, FBI, and Texas National Guard, which resulted in the deaths of their leader, David Koresh as well as 82 other Branch Davidians and 4 ATF agents.
  • Water Ceremony
    • Many Unitarian Universalist (UU) congregations have an annual tradition of celebrating a Water Ceremony/Communion early in September as a ritual of welcoming members of their congregation to a new church year.
  • Weeping Statues and Icons - Blood, Water, Oil
    • Statues of the Virgin Mary have been known to spontaneously begin weeping blood, water, and oil from the eyes of the statue. The faithful see a miracle, while nonbelievers claim it as a hoax.
  • What are Holi and Fuldol?
    • Festival of Color information for children
  • What is a Christian?
    • What is a Christian? Many think they are Christians because they claim to believe in Jesus. But, believing in Jesus often means nothing, or anything, particularly here in America where pluralism and relativism are rampant. Intolerance is the only thing not tolerated by the postmodernist who says, "My truth is different than your truth, so don't judge me with your outdated morals." Such commentary by the non-thinking and spiritually dead is all too common. But it doesn't change the true meaning of what it means to be a follower of Christ. So, what does it mean to be a Christian?
  • What is a Lutheran?
    • While there are a variety of ways one could answer this question, one very important answer is simply this, "A Lutheran is a person who believes, teaches and confesses the truths of God's Word as they are summarized and confessed in the Book of Concord." The Book of Concord contains the Lutheran confessions of faith.
  • What is Consciousness?
    • Perspectives on consciousness from philosophy, cognitive science, and neuroscience.
  • What Is Islam?
    • It's not every day that religion appears as a front page story in today's newspapers, particularly on a regular basis. But over the past 20 years one religion has made the front page perhaps more than any other.
  • What Is Nonviolence (AHIMSA) According To Jains?
    • Ahimsa means nonviolence, that is, refraining from committing all sorts of injuries to living beings
  • What is Shinto?
    • Jinja Shinto - Shinto Online Network Association
  • What Might Spirituality and Religion Offer the Contemporary Practicing Psychologist?
    • Professional psychology has appeared to have rediscovered spirituality and religion with renewed interest in integrating this aspect of life into professional psychological services.
  • What Would God Be?
    • A look at why belief in god arose, the functions of such a being, and differences among beliefs.
  • Which Ten Commandments
    • One of the best-kept secrets in the discussions on the Ten Commandments concerns the fact that (according to the story) Moses smashed the first set of tables in a fit of anger, because the Israelites chose to worship the golden calf. (That this would happen or would be told casts doubt on the whole Exodus tale, but we will not cover that here.)
  • Wicca
    • Wicca is a Neopagan religion that can be found in many English-speaking countries. This article provides an overview of Wiccan beliefs.
  • Wicca
    • Wikipedia's page on the Wiccan religion.
  • Wicca: a Neopagan, Earth-centered religion
    • Wicca is the largest of the Neopagan religions. Wiccans have great reverence for the Earth and for their Goddess and her consort, the horned God. Topics include background information, relationships with other religions, terminology, and discrimination against Wiccans.
  • Woman in Islam and Her Role in Human Development
    • This paper examines the role and empowerment of women in Islam, the involvement of women in community life, and Islam and equality. By Dr M. H. Al Khayat, 2003, World Health Organization.
  • Women in Hinduism
  • Women in Hinduism
    • This is the Wikipedia's article on Women in Hinduism.
  • Women’s Rights and Women’s Rites
    • Religion at the historical root of gender stratification. By Margaret Gonsoulin. Electronic Journal of Sociology (2005).
  • Women's Dharma
    • Although women may be classified according to varna, they are also considered a section of society in their own right. They do not pass through the four stages available to men.
  • Women's Roles in Vedic Rituals
  • World Religions (2005)
    • Religions of the world with the most adherents as reported by the World Christian Database.
  • World Religions Index Articles
    • Articles and comparison studies discussing the major world religions -- their various views on God, salvation and the afterlife. Written from a Christian perspective.
  • World Religions Index Personal Pages
    • Personal stories from people who have experienced a wide variety of world religions and religious philosophies.
  • World Views
    • Many books have been written on the subject of world views from both Christian and non-Christian perspectives. Ideally speaking, only one world view can correctly mirror reality.
  • Worship
    • What do different religions worship and how?
  • WorshipWeb
    • WorshipWeb is organized in interconnected modules about Unitarian Universalism, including words for worship, ideas for multigenerational, multicultural, young adult, and contemporary worship, and prayers.
  • Yatra
    • Yatra, in Hinduism and other Indian religions, generally means pilgrimage to holy places such as confluences of sacred rivers, places associated with Hindu epics such as the Mahabharata and Ramayana, and other sacred pilgrimage sites.
  • Yoga
    • Wikipedia's page on yoga.
  • Yoruba Religion and Myth
    • The faiths of the Yoruba peoples of Western Nigeria vary significantly from one part of the region to another; the same deity may be male in one village and female in the next, or the characteristics of two gods may be embodied in a single deity in a neighboring region.
  • Zen
    • Wikipedia's page on Zen Buddhism.
  • Zoroastrian Religion's Most Frequently Asked Questions
    • by Rustom C. Chothia. 33 Common questions that people have about Zoroastrianism and their answers.
  • Zoroastrianism
    • Wikipedia's page on the religion called Zoroastrianism.
  • Zoroastrianism: An Ancient Religion Founded by Zarathushtra
    • Introductory materials on history, festivals, holy texts, and practices