Format: Web Page

Materials to help you study and learn the basic of a wide variety of subject areas. These materials can also help you study for taking the G.E.D. examination.
  • 17th to 18th Century
    • Examples of utopian literature from the 17th to 18th centuries.
  • 19th Century Utopian Literature
    • Examples of utopian literature in the 19th century.
  • A Ballad of Boding by Christina Rossetti
    • Poem by British poet Christina Rossetti, who lived from 1830-1894.
  • A Better Resurrection by Christina Rossetti
    • Poem by Christina Rossetti, a British poet who lived from 1830-1894.
  • A Healthy Diet for Babies and Young Children
    • The following six spots focus on different aspects of a healthy diet for young children. Spots 1 through 6 tell a story that unfolds over time, but each has a separate message. They can be used together in a series or they can stand alone.
  • A History Of Greek Art
    • by F. B. Tarbell
  • A Kitchen Garden for the Family
    • It is true that many people do not have much land. But the plots on which their houses stand may have backyards which are often big enough and fertile enough for gardening. Even two or three square metres of soil wisely used can contribute rich vegetables to the family diet. These vegetables can have a great nutritional value for the family.
  • A Poem to David by Robert Buchanan
    • Poem by Robert Buchanan, a British poet, novelist and dramatist who lived from 1841-1901.
  • A Toccata of Galuppi's by Robert Browning
    • A poem by Robert Browning, British poet of the Victorian era, alive 1812-1889.
  • Absolute Value
    • The symbol x denotes the absolute value of x, which is the number without its sign.
  • Academic Writing
    • These OWL resources will help you with the types of writing you may encounter while in college. The OWL resources range from rhetorical approaches for writing, to document organization, to sentence level work, such as clarity, and forming logical arguments in your writing.
  • Active Verb Tenses
    • This handout explains and describes the sequence of verb tenses in the English language.
  • Adding Algebraic Fractions
    • There is one rule for adding or subtracting fractions: the denominators must be the same. Learn more and practice here.
  • Adding and Subtracting Fractions
    • How do we add or subtract fractions? What number should we choose as the common denominator? How do we add mixed numbers? How do we subtract a mixed number from a whole number?
  • Adding and Subtracting Signed Numbers
    • "Adding" a negative number. Naming terms. The rule for adding terms. Subtracting a negative number.
  • Adding Like Terms
    • This covers "like terms", which have the same literal factor (or factors).
  • Adding Whole Numbers and Decimals
    • How do we add whole numbers? How do we add decimals?
  • Adjective or Adverb?
    • This resource provides basic guidelines of adjective and adverb use in the English language.
  • Adjectives and Adverbs
    • This worksheet discusses the differences between adjectives and adverbs. It defines adjectives and adverbs, shows what each can do, and offers several examples of each in use. In the English language.
  • Adjectives with Count and Noncount Nouns
    • This resource provides basic guidelines of adjective and adverb use in the English language.
  • After Death by Christina Rossetti
    • Poem by Christina Rossetti, an English poet who lived from 1830-1894.
  • Algebra 2 Worksheets
    • A great site with many algebra 2 worksheets, just a bit more advanced than the algebra 1 worksheets. Each one has model problems worked out step by step, practice problems, as well as challenge questions at the sheets end. Plus each one comes with an answer key.
  • Algebra Worksheets
    • A great site with many algebra worksheets. Each one has model problems worked out step by step, practice problems, as well as challenge questions at the sheets end. Plus each one comes with an answer key.
  • Algebraic Expressions
    • Terms versus factors. The function of parentheses. The order of operations. The value of a letter. What it means to evaluate an expression.
  • Algebraic Fractions
    • Fractions in algebra are typically called rational expressions.
  • An Echo from Willowwood by Christina Rossetti
    • Poem by British poet Christina Rossetti, who lived from 1830 to 1894.
  • An Optical Illusion
    • Learn about optical illusions and how they relate to geometry.
  • Analysis Essay
    • Brief instructions on how to write an analytical essay with a link to how to write a literary analysis.
  • APA Citation Style
    • Examples for how to write a works cited page in the APA style.
  • APA In-Text Citations
    • Examples of how to use the APA style within a text.
  • Applications of Maximum and Minimum Values
    • Finding a maximum or a minimum has its application in pure mathematics, and an application to commercial problems, such as finding the least dimensions of a carton that is to contain a given volume.
  • Appositives
    • This handout defines appositives and explains how they are used in the English language.
  • Argument Essay
    • Instructions on how to write an argumentative essay with sample papers included.
  • Articles: A Versus An
    • This short handout deals with which article to use before a noun -- "a" or "an" in the English language.
  • At Home by Christina Rossetti
    • Poem by Christina Rossetti, an English poet who lived from 1830-1894.
  • Audience and Purpose
    • This handout will help you solve your memo-writing problems by discussing what a memo is, describing the parts of memos, and providing examples and explanations that will make your memos more effective.
  • Automedian Triangles and Magic Squares
    • An "automedian triangle" is defined as one whose three medians are proportional to the three sides. Learn how to utilize this triangle.
  • Avoiding Common Errors
    • This worksheet discusses the differences between adjectives and adverbs. It defines adjectives and adverbs, shows what each can do, and offers several examples of each in use in the English language.
  • B.C. to 16th Century
    • Examples of utopian literature between B.C. and the 16th century.
  • Basic Concepts of Mathematics
    • This book helps the student complete the transition from purely manipulative to rigorous mathematics. The clear exposition covers many topics that are assumed by later courses but are often not covered with any depth or organization: basic set theory, induction, quantifiers, functions and relations, equivalence relations, properties of the real numbers (including consequences of the completeness axiom), fields, and basic properties of dimensional Euclidean spaces.
  • Basic Graphs of a Parabola
    • Learn about graphs that occur throughout analytic geometry and calculus. The student should be able to recognize them -- and sketch them -- purely from their shape.
  • Before You Start Writing That Paper... A Guide to Prewriting Techniques
    • Are you writing a paper and don't know where to start? Even with a clear prompt, a grasp on the material, and lots of ideas, getting started on any paper can be a challenge. All writers face the dilemma of looking at a blank computer screen without having any idea of how to translate their thoughts into a coherent and carefully articulated essay. You may know all about drafting and editing, but how do you get to that first draft? What comes between a blank computer screen and that polished final paper anyway?
  • Bicycle Song (For Women) by Robert Buchanan
    • Poem by Robert Buchanan, British poet, novelist, and dramatist, who lived from 1841 to 1901.
  • Brainstorming
    • This handout discusses techniques that will help you start writing a paper and continue writing through the challenges of the revising process. Brainstorming can help you choose a topic, develop an approach to a topic, or deepen your understanding of the topic’s potential.
  • Calais Sands by Matthew Arnold
    • Poem by Matthew Arnold, an English poet who lived from 1822-1888.
  • Calculus Calculators
    • Contains calculus calculators and tutorials, such as the product rule, quotient rule and chain rule tutorial.
  • Capital Letters
    • This resource details standard capitalization rules in the English language.
  • Carbonate Rocks and Associated Landforms
    • In the Mojave National Preserve, carbonate sedimentary rocks of Proterozoic and Paleozoic age crop out throughout the Clark Mountains, the Mescal Mountains, in the northern Ivanpah Range, in the central portion of Providence Mountains, and elsewhere. This page has examples of common fossiliferous carbonate rocks of Paleozoic age.
  • Cause and Effect Essay
    • Instructions on how to write a cause and effect essay with a sample paper included.
  • Changing Climates and Ancient Lakes
    • The impact of both long-term and short-term climatic oscillations can be seen on the landscape. This page shows images and summaries of major lakes and rivers in the Mojave region of the USA.
  • Charles Dickens: An Introduction to His Novels
    • The need which this book is intended to fill is indicated by its full title. It has been written for the general reader or the student who does not pretend to specialized knowledge, but who may welcome the background information here provided as a means of enhancing his understanding and enjoyment of a very great novelist.
  • Chemistry Calculators
    • Contains Chemistry Calculators and Tutorials, such as the Half-Life Calculator, which solves for Beginning Amount, Ending Amount, Elapsed Time or Half-Life
  • Children Need Vitamin A
    • The following script describes how mothers can help protect their young children from dangerous childhood illnesses caused by a lack of vitamin A. Children especially need vitamin A for their physical growth, for their eyesight, and to help their bodies resist infection and disease.
  • Circuit Court Rules
    • The rules below were extracted from the web sites of the various Federal Court of Appeals in August, 2002. Forthcoming and proposed rules were also reviewed, and to the best of this author's knowledge, no revisions are currently pending on these excerpts. This author can also find no discussion at all of affirmance without opinion in the Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure (FRAP). The FRAP apply to all circuits. Where little was lost in context, the rules discussing published versus unpublished opinions are not included.
  • Clarity
    • A brief note about the importance of clarity when writing papers.
  • Climate Change Impacts
    • Climate change affects more than temperature. These changes are already having significant effects on fish, wildlife and plants here in the United States, necessitating new resource management approaches for climate adaptation.
  • Cohesion
    • Cohesion is revising to make sure that your words, ideas, and paragraphs fit together. Instructions for how to make an essay more cohesive.
  • Collecting Rocks
    • Learn how to identify types of rocks, tips on starting a collection, and more.
  • College Survival Guide/Improving Reading Skills
    • A portion of a book targeted towards bettering reader skills.
  • Commas
    • Instructions for proper comma use.
  • Commas: Quick Rules
    • This resource offers a number of tips about comma use.
  • Common Factor
    • Learn how to factor a number or an expression, and how it means to write it as a product of factors.
  • Commonly Confused Verbs
    • This handout contains a list and discussion of common irregular verbs in the English language.
  • Communist Manifesto
    • Marx argues that all changes in the shape of society, in political institutions, in history itself, are driven by a process of collective struggle on the part of groups of people with similar economic situations in order to realize their material or economic interests.
  • Compare/Contrast Essay
    • Instructions on how to write a compare and contrast essay with sample papers included.
  • Comparing Fractions
    • How can we compare fractions with the same numerator? How can we compare fractions with the same denominator? How can we find the lowest common multiple of two numbers? How can we compare fractions when the numerators and denominators are different? How can we know whether a fraction is more than or less than ˝?
  • Comparing Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives
    • This handout provides a detailed overview (including descriptions and examples) of gerunds, participles, and infinitives in the English language.
  • Completing the Square
    • Learn about the technique called completing the square. This means to make the quadratic into a perfect square trinomial, i.e. the form a˛ + 2ab + b˛ = (a + b)˛.
  • Complex Numbers
    • The square root of -1 is not a real number. There is no positive or negative number whose square will be negative. Nevertheless, it turns out to be extremely useful in mathematics and science to say that the equation x˛ + 1 = 0 has a solution.
  • Continuous Functions
    • Learn about continuous motion, a continuous function, the definition of "continuous at a point", a removable discontinuity, a theorem about continuous functions.
  • Continuous Versus Discrete
    • Calculus began by studying continuous motion in which the speed is not constant. To understand what that means, first distinguish what is continuous from what is discrete.
  • Count and Noncount Nouns with Articles and Adjectives
    • This handout discusses the differences between count nouns and noncount nouns in the English language. Count nouns can be pluralized; noncount nouns cannot.
  • Count and Noncount Nouns with Plurals, Articles, and Quantity Words
    • This handout discusses the differences between count nouns and noncount nouns in the English language. Count nouns can be pluralized; noncount nouns cannot.
  • Count and Noncount Nouns: Basic Rules
    • This handout discusses the differences between count nouns and noncount nouns in the English language. Count nouns can be pluralized; noncount nouns cannot.
  • Course in General Linguistics
    • Course in General Linguistics is an influential book compiled by Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye that is based on notes taken from Ferdinand de Saussure's lectures at the University of Geneva. It was published posthumously in 1916 and is generally regarded as the starting point of structural linguistics.
  • Cyclopedia of Economics
    • Cyclopedia of issues in economics analyzed through the prism of the economies of countries in transition, emerging markets and developing countries. By Dr. Sam Vaknin, 2004.
  • Dangling Modifiers
    • This resource explains what a dangling modifier is and how to correct the problem. In the English language.
  • Daoist Philosophy
    • Often debated whether Daoism is more of a philosophy or a religion, this article provides a brief overview of Daoism
  • De Bello Gallico by Julius Caesar
    • Commentarius Primus, Commentarius Secundus, Commentarius Tertius, Commentarius Quartus.
  • Decimals
    • Which numbers are the decimal units? What is the function of the decimal point? How do we read a decimal? How do we compare decimals?
  • Defining Versus Non-Defining
    • This handout provides detailed rules and examples for the usage of relative pronouns (that, who, whom, whose, which, where, when, and why) in the English language.
  • Definition Essay
    • Brief instructions on how to write a definition essay with sample papers included.
  • Derivatives of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    • There are many ways to introduce the exponential and logarithmic functions and to find their derivatives. To begin, some definition will be required.
  • Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
    • Learn how to derive the inverse trigonometric functions shown here.
  • Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions
    • Learn about trigonometric functions and how the derivative of sin x is equal to cos x.
  • Desert Landforms and Surface Processes in the Mojave National Preserve and Vicinity
    • This website is intended to provide basic geologic information about the origin of landscape features throughout the Mojave National Preserve and surrounding region.
  • Development Studies
    • Description of development studies, a multidisciplinary branch of social science.
  • Diagrams for MLA and APA Citations
    • A color guide for correctly formatting MLA and APA citations.
  • Difference of Two Squares
    • When the sum of two numbers multiplies their difference -- (a + b)(a - b) -- then the product is the difference of their squares: (a + b)(a - b) = a˛ - b˛
  • Diffusion and Osmosis
    • "Principles of Diffusion and Osmosis" is an .interactive tutorial written and designed by Ian Emerson, Associate Professor, Department of Biology; graphics and text programmed by Dean William Barnes
  • Digital Literacy Curriculum
    • Whether you are new to computing or have some experience, Digital Literacy will help you develop a fundamental understanding of computers. The courses help you learn the essential skills to begin computing with confidence, be more productive at home and at work, stay safe online, use technology to complement your lifestyle, and consider careers where you can put your skills to work. There are three levels: The Basic curriculum features a course called A First Course Toward Digital Literacy. This course teaches the value of computers in society and introduces you to using a mouse and the keyboard ; The Standard curriculum features five courses that cover computer basics; using the internet and productivity programs; security and privacy; and digital lifestyles - these five courses are available in four versions that use examples and screenshots from different versions of Windows and Microsoft Office ; The Advanced curriculum features five courses that cover building your first app, creating an e-mail account, creating a great resume, searching for content on the World Wide Web and social networking.
  • Dividing Decimals
    • When the divisor is a decimal, what must we do?
  • Division/Classification Essays
    • Instructions on how to write a division or classification essay with sample papers included.
  • Double Equations from Triangles in Squares
    • Learn how to complete double equations from triangles in squares.
  • Early 20th Century Utopian Literature
    • Examples of utopian literature in the early 20th century.
  • Eat Garlic for Good Health
    • Garlic has been used as a medicine for thousands of years. And it's helping cure illness today. One of the best things about garlic is that it's cheap - you can even grow it yourself.
  • Educational Origami
    • Educational Origami is a blog and a wiki, about 21st Century Teaching and Learning. This wiki is not just about the integration of technology into the classroom, though this is certainly a critical area, it is about shifting our educational paradigm.
  • Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Malaria and Other Causes of Morbidity in West African Children
    • The effects of zinc supplementation on malaria and other causes of morbidity were studied in young children living in an area holoendemic for malaria in west Africa. It was concluded that zinc supplementation has no effect on morbidity from falciparum malaria in children in rural west Africa, but it does reduce morbidity associated with diarrhoea.
  • Elementary Addition
    • Covers sums less than 10, composing 10 itself, and up to 20.
  • Eliminating Wordiness
    • A grouping of 3 different exercises to help you learn to eliminate wordiness when writing.
  • English Grammar and Syntax
    • This page lists all types of grammar and syntax in the English language, from basic parts like nouns and pronouns, to verbs, adverbs, and basic rules to follow.
  • English Grammar Quizzes - Easy
    • This project of The Internet TESL Journal has contributions by many teachers.
  • Equation of a Straight Line
    • y = 2x + 4 This is called an equation of the first degree. It is called that because the highest exponent is 1.
  • Equations with Fractions
    • To solve an equation with fractions, transform it into an equation without fractions. The technique is called clearing of fractions.
  • Equivalent Fractions
    • What are equivalent fractions? How can we know when fractions are equivalent? How can we reduce a fraction to its lowest terms? How can we reduce a fraction in which the numerator or denominator is a decimal?
  • Europe in the Age of Religious Wars, 1560-1715
    • By the beginning of the 16th century, the medieval Church and all that it represented, entered a period of profound crisis. By this time, the Church was nearly fifteen centuries old. Throughout its history the Church always had to confront problems both within its organization and from without. But by 1500, these problems rose to the surface.
  • European Agrarian Society: Manorialism
    • One of the greatest achievements of the early Middle Ages was the emergence of the single-family farm as the basic unit of production. Villa owners, that is, former Roman patricians, were forced to settle their slaves on their own estates. The wreckage of the Roman Empire demanded such a development.
  • Evaluating e
    • 2.7169 is an approximate value for e.
  • Exercises for Writing Poetry
    • This section covers images as they appear in poetry and covers related terminology, definitions and origins of images, uses of images, and several exercises.
  • Exponents
    • When a number is repeatedly multiplied by itself, we get the "powers" of that number.
  • Factorials
    • Learn about factorials here.
  • Factoring Trinomials
    • Factoring is the reverse of multiplying. Learn how to factor here.
  • Farmers' Market - Weigh Cool
    • A short game to play which will help you practice adding fractions. This game requires Flash Player to be installed on your computer.
  • Faults and Active Tectonics
    • Evidence of faulting can be seen throughout the Mojave region. Faults range in scale and complexity from small, simple offset measurable in inches or feet to massive thrust faults, normal faults, and strike-slip faults that have displacements ranging upward to tens of miles or more.
  • Federal Judicial Center
    • The Federal Judicial Center is the education and research agency for the federal courts. Congress created the FJC in 1967 to promote improvements in judicial administration in the courts of the United States. This site contains the results of Center research on federal court operations and procedures and court history, as well as selected educational materials.
  • First Principles of Geometry
    • Here are the first principles of plane geometry -- the definitions, postulates, and axioms or common notions --followed by a brief commentary.
  • Fit Facts
    • Get the facts on popular health and fitness topics in a concise, one-page format. Our ACE Fit Facts contain valuable information on a wide range of subjects, from nutrition to exercising outdoors, strength training, exercising with diabetes, weight management, workplace wellness and more. Educate your co-workers or members at your health club with trusted, unbiased facts.
  • Flannery O'Connor
    • Flannery O'Connor: American writer, particularly acclaimed for her stories which combined comic with tragic and brutal.
  • Food is Medicine: HIV/AIDS and Nutrition
    • People living with HIV/AIDS need to be encouraged to eat enough of the right kinds of foods every day. Radio broadcasters can help by offering up-to-date information about diets and nutrition, and a place to talk with doctors, nurses and other medical professionals on this subject.
  • Formalism
    • This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy.
  • Formatting a MLA Works Cited Page and Paper
    • Two videos showing how to correctly format a paper and works cited page in the MLA style.
  • Formatting an APA References Page and Paper
    • Two videos showing how to correctly format a paper and works cited page in the APA style.
  • Fossils, Rocks, and Time
    • Learn about rock layers and fossil succession.
  • Fractions into Decimals
    • What is a "decimal"? How can we change a fraction to a decimal? Frequent decimals and frequent percents: Half, thirds, quarters, fifths, eighths. Complete versus incomplete decimals.
  • Français Interactif
    • Consult the features section to learn how the videos on the website are integrated into the communicative classroom activities in the textbook. In addition to interviews of native French speakers and a wealth of cultural information, the website also includes recorded vocabulary, phonetics lessons, and more.
  • Functions
    • When one thing depends on another, as, for example, the area of a circle depends on the radius, or the temperature on the mountain depends on the height, then we say that the first is a "function" of the other.
  • Garden on Your Rooftop
    • It's possible to harvest lots of fresh vegetables from a rooftop garden and deliver them directly to your kitchen table. Go up to your rooftop or out to your patio and look around.
  • GED Study Guide videos
    • This series of videos is aimed towards helping anyone who needs to study for the GED test. It covers sections: Math, Science, and Social Studies
  • General Geologic History
    • The oldest rocks exposed in the Mojave National Preserve are between 1.7 and 2.5 billion years old (early Proterozoic age). They consist of metamorphic rocks derived from pre-existing sedimentary, volcanic, and igneous intrusive rocks.
  • Geodisc Diophantine Boxes
    • Learn about rectangular solids with integer edge lengths such that all three geodesic distances between opposite vertices are also integers.
  • Geomagnetism Frequently Asked Questions
    • All about the earth's magnetic field, magnetic elements, and compasses.
  • Geometry Calculators
    • Contains geometry calculators and tutorials, such as the pythagorean theorem calculator for right triangles.
  • Geometry Worksheets
    • A great site with many worksheets on geometry. Each one has model problems worked out step by step, practice problems, as well as challenge questions at the sheets end. Each one comes with an answer key.
  • Germanic Languages: A Comparative Analysis
    • Comparison of verb conjugations in German, Dutch and Swedish.
  • Gerunds
    • This handout provides a detailed overview (including descriptions and examples) of gerunds, participles, and infinitives in the English language.
  • Global Climatic Change
    • A report regarding climate change.
  • Glossary of Technical Musical Terms
    • Learn any musical term by referencing this glossary.
  • Good Nutrition for the Whole Family: Radio Spots
    • Different family members have different nutritional needs. Everyone including men, women and children need to eat a variety of foods every day for good health.
  • Grammar: Paragraphs
    • Instructions on how to write clear and strong paragraphs.
  • Grammar: Prepositions and Idioms
    • Information on how to correctly identify and use prepositions and idioms.
  • Granitic Rocks and Associated Landforms
    • Weathering and erosion in arid regions underlain by granitic bedrock produce unique characteristic landforms.
  • Greatest Common Divisor, Lowest Common Multiple
    • We will now see how to find the greatest common divisor and the lowest common multiple of two numbers from their prime factorizations.
  • Green Leafy Vegetables are Health Foods
    • The following messages about the nutritional value of dark green leafy vegetables are presented as radio spots. Radio spots are short messages that are meant to change people’s behaviour or actions. They usually last five seconds to two minutes.
  • Guided Tour to Teaching and Learning about Decimals
    • Lessons, games and discussion points targeted at choosing and using concrete models, diagnosing misconceptions, connecting decimals, whole numbers, and fractions, and more.
  • Helping Your Child Learn Math
    • Activities for teaching math at home, at the grocery store, and elsewhere.
  • Higher Order Concerns and Lower Order Concerns
    • This handout discusses the common Higher Order Concerns (HOCs) and Lower Order Concerns (LOCs) in writing.
  • History of the World
    • Important events in world history categorized by region & empire.
  • Homonyms
    • A list of homonyms in the English language and their meanings.
  • How Music Makes Sense
    • Music relies primarily on repetition to help it make sense to the listener. In popular music and children's songs, the repetition is often very literal and direct, making the music more immediately accessible. In art-music, the repetition is often varied and transformed. This makes the repetition flexible, capable of assuming of many forms and moods.
  • How to be a Better Reader
    • Discusses why reading is important and how to get better at it.
  • How to Begin Writing a Research Paper
    • Here are some easy, simple steps to follow that will get you started out on the right foot for a research paper.
  • How to Cite a Website
    • If you use information from a website for research, you'll need to cite it appropriately in your write-up. Here's how to do it.
  • How to Cite Sources in MLA Format
    • The Modern Language Association (MLA) has its own guidelines for citing sources, and you may be required to use them by your instructor or field.
  • How to Copyedit and Proofread Written Work
    • In order to make the process accessible to beginners, the activities involved in proofreading and correcting basic errors will be referred to as "copyediting." By the time you finish reading this, you should be able to perform basic copyediting tasks.
  • How to Correctly Use "Affect" and "Effect"
    • It's easy to learn the difference between these two words, and reading this article should help you avoid mistaking these.
  • How to Correctly Use "Assure", "Ensure", and "Insure"
    • This article may assure you of their proper usage, ensure that you know how to use them, and insure you against being accused of poor grammar.
  • How to Correctly Use "Than" and "Then"
    • It is important to know in which situations to choose each word. Follow this guide below, and then you'll be using these words better than anyone you know!
  • How to Correctly Use "There", "Their", and "They're"
    • Each spelling means a very different thing; if you'd like to learn the difference, read on.
  • How to Correctly Use "Too" and "To"
    • A common mistake, the use of "to" or "too" is very easy to differentiate between and once you know how to tell, you can teach others how to get it right too!
  • How to Correctly Use "You're" and "Your"
    • Mistaking "you're" for "your" - or vice versa - is a common writing error most people have made at least once. Here's how to know which one to use.
  • How to Do Endnotes
    • Though many research papers rely on in-text citations and works cited pages, some disciplines still prefer you to use endnotes to reference your sources. Learning how to do endnotes will help you point your readers to the sources you used.
  • How to Do Works Cited
    • Schools and institutions have developed formal styles for all sorts of citations, from books to Internet sites and verbal interviews. For those who need to do works cited as part of a paper or project, some basic steps can help achieve this goal successfully.
  • How to Edit or Proofread an Essay or Paper
    • Editing papers and essays can be a daunting task. With these steps, a clearer and well-written piece can be formed.
  • How to Get Motivated to Study
    • These ideas will help you get motivated to study.
  • How to Identify Parts of Speech
    • Every word in the English language functions as at least one part of speech; many words can serve, at different times, as two or more parts of speech, depending on the context.
  • How to Improve Your Concentration
    • Follow these 9 steps to help improve your concentration.
  • How to Improve Your English Listening
    • This page describes techniques for a person learning English to best improve their listening skills, including mini-dictation.
  • How to Improve Your English Speaking
    • This page discusses ways in which a beginning English learner can best improve their speaking, in regards to both pronunciation and fluency.
  • How to Improve Your English Writing
    • This page discusses ways in which an English learner can best improve their writing skills.
  • How to Quote in a Research Paper
    • A research paper can be made stronger through the use of direct quotations when you need to cite a key piece of primary source material, strengthen your argument through another writer's work made in particularly good terms, or highlight a term of art.
  • How to Read Faster
    • Ever wanted to read faster? Read the following steps to learn how.
  • How to Take Book Notes
    • In many University classes, taking book notes often marks the difference between an A and a B course grade for a normally good to average student. If you tend not to be organized, the following suggestions concerning book notes are matters of personal preference yet should prove helpful.
  • How to Take Lecture Notes
    • Instructions and tips on how to take effective lecture notes.
  • How to Take Notes
    • Follow these steps to take good notes.
  • How to Use "Etc." Correctly
    • The use of et cetera isn't usually taught in schools or tutoring because it's considered to be just an abbreviation. Regardless, it's important to know how to use it properly, so here's how to do so.
  • How to Use English Punctuation Correctly
    • All about the fundamental aspects of English punctuation.
  • How to Use Internal Citations
    • Citing your research is an important part of any paper or project. Even though you provide a list of sources at the end of your paper, you also need to understand how to use internal citations when you are referring specifically to someone else's work.
  • How to Use Italics
    • A quick and easy guide on when and how to use italics.
  • How to Write a Persuasive Essay
    • Whether for school or persuading your boss for that extra raise, everyone needs and should know how to write a persuasive essay.
  • How to Write a Philosophy Paper
    • Here are some suggestions to guide your efforts when compiling a philosophy paper.
  • How to Write a Research Paper
    • There are two main types of research papers--argumentative research papers and analytical research papers. The process of researching and writing both types is the same, just with a different goal.
  • How to Write a Scientific Paper
    • Scientific papers are written in a specific format, and it is both easy and necessary to learn how to write them well.
  • How to Write a Term Paper
    • Follow these steps to take your term papers to the head of the class.
  • How to Write a Thesis Statement
    • An effective thesis statement states the purpose of the paper and therefore functions to control, assert, and structure your argument. Without a sound thesis, your argument may be weak, lack in direction, and appear uninteresting to the reader.
  • How to Write an Analytical Essay
    • An analytical essay is an essay that presents factual information about an objective topic, such as when comparing main ideas between 2 topics. Here's how to put together your ideas into a coherent analytical essay.
  • How to Write an APA Style Bibliography
    • A bibliography provides an alphabetized list of all of the sources used to create an article, and it is a necessary component of any piece of research or writing. Here's how to compile an APA-style bibliography.
  • Hydrology
    • Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
  • In the Wake of the Black Death
    • The primary disruption of the 14th century was the appearance of the Black Death. The Black Death was ultimately responsible for the gruesome death of more than 25 million people, a figure which represented at least 30 percent of Europe's total population.
  • Inequalities
    • An explanation of the greater than and less than signs. In each case, the sign opens towards the larger number.
  • Infinitives
    • This handout provides a detailed overview (including descriptions and examples) of gerunds, participles, and infinitives in the English language.
  • Inseparable Phrasal Verbs
    • Provides an overview and lists of phrasal/two part verbs in the English language.
  • Internet History Sourcebooks
    • The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts covering Ancient History, Medieval History, and Modern History. Also includes detailed, thematically based subsets of texts, with some additional documents and links, of the three main Sourcebooks listed above: African, Eastern Asian, Global, Indian, Jewish, Islamic, Lesbian/Gay, Science and Women; and Special Resources on Byzantium, Medieval, Saints' Lives, and Ancient and Medieval Law.
  • Intransitive Phrasal Verbs
    • Provides an overview and lists of phrasal/two part verbs in the English language.
  • Introduction to Bamboo
    • Learn about bamboo taxonomy, as well as planting and care.
  • Introduction to Climate
    • A report regarding climate.
  • Introduction to Defining Clauses
    • This handout provides detailed rules and examples for the usage of relative pronouns (that, who, whom, whose, which, where, when, and why) in the English language.
  • Introduction to Graphs of Functions
    • Learn about graphs of functions here.
  • Introduction to Logic
    • Covers such topics as hypothesis and conclusion, necessary and sufficient, valid arguments.
  • Introduction to the Atmosphere
    • A report including an introduction to the atmosphere.
  • Inverse Functions
    • Learn about the inverse of a function and how it undoes the action of that function.
  • Iodine: The Hidden Hunger
    • Iodine deficiency or a lack of iodine causes a swelling called a goiter. People who don't get enough iodine in their diet can develop other problems too. Iodine deficiency has been called the silent hunger because we do not crave it although our bodies must have it.
  • Irregular Verbs: Overview and List
    • This handout contains a list and discussion of common irregular verbs in the English language.
  • Is the Computer Appropriate for Teaching Physics?
    • Describes one persons journey through finding the best practices in using computers to teach physics at the college level.
  • Ismaili Philosophy
    • Ismailism belongs to the Shi‘a main stream of Islam
  • J.D. Salinger
    • Summary of Salinger's life and work
  • Jain Philosophy
    • The ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, and logic of Jainism
  • Judicial Administration and Organization
    • Explore more about the Federal Judicial Circuits here.
  • Keeping Food Safe: Part One
    • The people who buy food at these stalls or restaurants need to know that their food is safe. This is an important concern for you as a food seller. If you serve food that is spoiled, your customers could get sick, or even die. Food sellers themselves can get sick or die if they eat spoiled food. And your business could suffer.
  • Keeping Food Safe: Part Two
    • Today, we will talk about some other things that food sellers can do to keep their food safe and stop it from spoiling. You can kill the microbes and enzymes that cause food to spoil if you cook food at a high temperature. So, follow this rule: always cook foods until every part is thoroughly hot. Heat liquids until they boil before you serve them.
  • Landscape Conservation Cooperatives
    • One of the strengths of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is our technical excellence in planning and delivering conservation. Whether on a National Wildlife Refuge, at a National Fish Hatchery, or on some other public or private land, the plans and projects we deliver are widely acclaimed for their quality and effectiveness in addressing conservation challenges.
  • Late 20th Century Utopian Literature
    • Examples of utopian literature in the late 20th century.
  • Learning Games and Strategies
    • PDF downloads in English Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Engagement Strategies, Test Review/Strategies, and Character Education.
  • Learning Math With Geocaching
    • Geocache comes from the terms geo (earth) and cache (hidden supply or treasure). Geocaches are usually small trinkets or clues in waterproof containers with the cache's geographic coordinates. This article provides reasons it may assist with learning math.
  • Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History
    • These lectures were written over the past ten years and served as the basis for my western civilization and upper level European history courses at Florida Atlantic University, Broward Community College, Vance-Granville Community College, Meredith College and Wake Technical Community College.
  • Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: A Brief Social History of the Roman Empire
    • A Brief Social History of the Roman Empire
  • Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: Ancient Western Asia and the Civilization of Mesopotamia
    • Before Civilization as well as the Civilization of Mesopotamia.
  • Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: Augustus Caesar and the Pax Romana
    • History about Augustus Caesar and the period of The Roman Peace...
  • Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: Christianity as a Cultural Revolution
    • When Christianity came to the Roman Empire it performed perhaps one of the most significant cultural revolutions in the history of the West.
  • Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: Classical Greece, 500-323BC
    • This is the age of the great historians Herodotus and Thucydides, great dramatists like Sophocles, Euripides and Aeschylus, and the brilliant philosopher Socrates. The 5th century is also regarded as the age when the Greeks embraced their brilliant experiment in direct democracy.
  • Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: Early Roman Civilization, 753-509BC
    • The Roman poet Ovid (43 B.C.-A.D. 17) composed the above lines as the Epilogue to his poem, Metamorphosis, sometime around A.D. 9. Augustus Caesar had been imperator of the Roman Empire for more than twenty years. It was the era of the Pax Romana. The Greeks had "fathered" history in the works of Hellenic historians like Herodotus and Thucycdides. However, the Greeks failed to see history in terms of a future.
  • Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: Egyptian Civilization
    • The basic element in the lengthy history of Egyptian civilization is geography. The Nile River rises from the lakes of central Africa as the White Nile and from the mountains of Ethiopia as the Blue Nile. The White and Blue Nile meet at Khartoum and flow together northward to the Nile delta, where the 4000 mile course of this river spills into the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: From Polis to Cosmopolis: Alexander the Great
    • There is little doubt that the Peloponnesian War ultimately signified the end of the city-state as a creative force which fulfilled the lives of the citizenry. Throughout the 5th and 4th centuries, the political history of the Greek world degenerated into oligarchy.
  • Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: Greek Thought: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle
    • The political and social upheaval caused by the Persian Wars as well as continued strife between Athens and Sparta had at least one unintended consequence. In the 5th century, a flood of new ideas poured into Athens. In general, these new ideas came as a result of an influx of Ionian thinkers into the Attic peninsula.
  • Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: Homer and the Greek Renaissance, 900-600BC
    • Throughout the past 2500 years of western history there has been a tendency on the part of one age after another to go back in time to find something of itself in the past. The quest for collective identity has often taken scholars, artists, intellectuals, philosophers, scientists and others back to that historical point in time in which it all began.
  • Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: Republican Rome, 509-31BC
    • In 509 B.C., and after having expelled the Etruscans, the Romans constructed a form of political organization we call a republic. Gradually, a series of documents were drawn up which together make up the Roman constitution. The constitution outlined the legal rights of citizens and in Rome, everyone with the exception of women, slaves and resident aliens, qualified as a citizen.
  • Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: The Akkadians, Egyptians and the Hebrews
    • The Akkadian Kingdom & Ancient Egypt.
  • Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: What is Civilization?
    • Up to about the year 1860, man's history had been conveniently divided into three distinct epochs: ancient, medieval and modern. After 1860, however, a new expression came into general use to describe the cultures of the distant past. Pre-history was the name given to that period of man's history before written documents appeared. We can now study man's pre-history through the field of archeology.
  • Lectures on Early Modern European History
    • Welcome to The History Guide's Lectures on Early Modern European History. These lectures were written over the past ten years and served as the basis for my upper division European intellectual history and western civilization classes at Florida Atlantic University and Meredith College.
  • Lectures on Mondern European Intellectual History
    • The History Guide's Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History: Abelard to Nietzsche. These lectures were written over the past five years and served as the basis for my upper division European intellectual history and history of European socialism classes at Florida Atlantic University and Meredith College.
  • Limits
    • Central to calculus is the idea of a limit, and central to the idea of a limit is the idea of a sequence of rational numbers.
  • Linear Equations
    • Inverse operations. The four forms of equations. Transposing. A logical sequence of statements.
  • Linear Functions: The Equation of a Straight Line
    • Covers the study of the graphs of polynomial functions. Observe that the graph of each degree leaves its characteristic signature on the x- y-plane.
  • Linguistic Relativity
    • The principle of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects the ways in which its speakers conceptualize their world, i.e. their world view, or otherwise influences their cognitive processes.
  • Linguistics
    • Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. Linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or subfields of study: language form, language meaning, and language in context.
  • Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language
    • This is a scientific approach to the study of linguistics of the English language. Source: An Introduction to Language by Victoria Fromkin and Robert Rodman (Sixth Edition.) Please note that this page uses Unicode characters to display the IPA symbols so please make sure you are using the latest version of your web browser.
  • List of Solar-Terrestrial Terms
    • On-line Glossary of Solar - Terrestrial Physics Terms taken from the SESC Glossary of Solar-Terrestrial Terms.
  • Literary Analysis
    • An introduction to the elements of literature needed to write a successful literary analysis essay.
  • Logarithmic and Exponential Functions
    • Learn about logarithmic and exponential functions.
  • Logarithms
    • A logarithm is the exponent to which the base must be raised to produce a given number.
  • Logarithms
    • Learn about logarithms here and how exponents factor in.
  • Management Accounting: Concepts, Techniques & Controversial Issues
    • Each section (with a couple of exceptions) has a set of questions with links to materials where answers can be found or developed. These materials could be used as a self study course, or as an upper level or graduate course by any professor who teaches management accounting.
  • Mathematical Induction
    • Mathematical induction is a technique for proving a statement -- a theorem, or a formula -- that is asserted about every natural number.
  • Mathematical Quilts
    • Quilts serve as a visual introduction to mathematical concepts that allows students to explore mathematics as they gain geometric insights. My quilts will engage the viewer in mathematical visualization, helping to further the role of problem solving.
  • Mathematics Animated
    • This page provides a list of animations that illustrate mathematical proofs and problems.
  • Maximum and Minimum Values
    • Learn about maximum and minimum values and how they attribute to calculus.
  • Meaning of Division
    • The divisor, the dividend, and the quotient. What is the problem in division? What is a rate? Exact versus inexact division. The divisor a decimal. How do we divide by decomposing the dividend?
  • Memory of the Brain
    • In all vertebrates and most invertebrates, the brain is the centre of the nervous system. It allows them to collect information (sensory system), act on that information (motor system) and store the result for future reference (memory), thus effectively making life possible.
  • Mental Calculation
    • The emphasis will be on problems that do not require a calculator -- problems that you should not even have to write down! Mental calculation is now arithmetic of the most practical kind.
  • Mental Calculation: Multiplication
    • What is "multiplication"? Covers basic multiplication skills and practices.
  • Mental Calculation: Subtraction
    • First, the meaning of subtraction. Then, methods for achieving it.
  • Method of Proportions
    • How can we find the Percent by the method of Proportions? What is a general method for finding the Percent?
  • Mid 20th Century Utopian Literature
    • Examples of utopian literature in the mid 20th century.
  • Minuteman Missile National Historic Site: Protecting a Legacy of the Cold War
    • Examine how the escalation of the Cold War led to the development and deployment of the Minuteman Missile system and investigate the role of missileers as America's "peacekeepers." Includes readings, images, and lessons.
  • MIT OpenCourseware - Biology
    • The Department of Biology offers undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral training programs ranging from general biology to more specialized fields of study and research.
  • MIT OpenCourseware - Mathematics
    • MIT OpenCourseWare is a publication of MIT course materials that reflects almost all the undergraduate and graduate subjects taught at MIT.
  • MLA In-Text Citations
    • Examples of how to use the MLA style within a text.
  • MLA Style Works Cited Entries
    • Examples for how to write a works cited page in the MLA style.
  • MLA: Using Sources Correctly
    • Instructions on when and how to correctly use in-text citations.
  • More Rules for Derivatives
    • This covers the quotient rule, proof of the quotient rule, implicit differentiation, and the derivative of an inverse function.
  • Motivation Tips
    • Lasting motivation is possible, but you must first adopt an outlook that allows you to be successful! Here are 15 tips to help.
  • Mouserobics
    • Very basic tutorial for first-time mouse users.
  • Multiple Roots: Point of Inflection
    • Learn about the graphs of polynomials that have multiple roots.
  • Multiplication of Sums
    • Learn how to prove the binomial theorem by first considering the multiplication of any sums.
  • Multiply and Divide by 10
    • In this Lesson we will learn to multiply and divide by a power of 10 -- simply by moving the decimal point. Having done that, we can then understand scientific notation.
  • Multiplying and Dividing Algebraic Fractions
    • To multiply fractions, multiply the numerators and multiply the denominators. Also learn how to deal with a complex fraction.
  • Multiplying and Dividing Fractions
    • How do we multiply a fraction by a whole number? How do we multiply a fraction by a fraction? How do we divide fractions?
  • Multiplying and Dividing Radicals
    • Learn the rule for multiplying radicals.
  • Multiplying and Dividing Signed Numbers
    • Covers the rule of signs.
  • Multiplying Out: The Distributive Rule
    • "To multiply a sum, multiply each term of the sum." This is called the distributive rule.
  • Multiplying Whole Numbers and Decimals
    • In writing, how do we multiply whole numbers? How do we multiply decimals? How can we find a percent of a number? How can we find the area of a rectangle?
  • Music in Perspective
    • Select a composer or composition from the listings to see a table of their major works, and a comparative table of historical occurrences in the same period. Then, choose a category from the colour-coded menu to compare with World Politics, Philosophy, Science, Art, English Novels, English Poetry, and Foreign Literature.
  • Narrative/Descriptive Essay
    • Instructions on how to write a narrative or descriptive essay with sample papers included.
  • Natural Gemstones
    • Learn about birthstones, mining gemstones, chemical formulas of gemstones, and more.
  • Negative Exponents
    • Learn about negative exponents, and how to extend the meaning of an exponent to more than just a positive whole number.
  • Neo-Confucian Philosophy
    • “Neo-Confucianism” is the name commonly applied to the revival of the various strands of Confucian philosophy and political culture that began in the middle of the 9th Century and reached new levels of intellectual and social creativity in the 11th Century in the Northern Song Dynasty.
  • Nutrition - Advice to an Expectant Mother
    • A good diet – both for expectant mothers and their children – is essential for healthy children. This drama explains why, and gives some suggestions for a nutritious diet.
  • Nutrition and Health: Story Ideas for the Radio
    • There are limitless programming possibilities on the topic of nutrition and health. Following are some examples of issues rural people should consider as they plan and prepare healthy meals for their families.
  • Overview of Two-Part (Phrasal) Verbs (Idioms)
    • Provides an overview and lists of phrasal/two part verbs in the English language.
  • Parallel Structure
    • This handout describes and provides examples of parallel structure (similar patterns of words).
  • Participles
    • This handout provides a detailed overview (including descriptions and examples) of gerunds, participles, and infinitives in the English language.
  • Parts of Fractions
    • What does it mean to multiply a number by a fraction? How can we express a fraction as a percent? How can we take a part of a fraction?
  • Parts of Natural Numbers: Part 1
    • In this chapter we will learn to speak the language of arithmetic. This will allow us to relate any two numbers. We will be able to say, for example, that 12 is half of 24, or that 18 is three fourths of 24. We are not concerned here with How do you do it? but, rather, What does that mean?
  • Parts of Natural Numbers: Part 2
    • What do we mean by a mixed number of times? How can we find a part by dividing? How can we find a fifth or 20% of a number? How can we take half of any number? How can we take a fourth or 25% of a number? How can we multiply by 5 or 15? Increase or decrease by a part.
  • Parts of Speech Overview
    • This handout defines the basic parts of speech and provides examples of their uses in sentences. In the English language.
  • Passive Verb Tenses
    • This handout explains and describes the sequence of verb tenses in the English language.
  • Pediments and Alluvial Fans
    • The term mountain front is an imaginary borderline between a mountainous area and a low, gently dipping plain. A pediment is a gently sloping erosion surface or plain of low relief formed by running water in arid or semiarid region at the base of a receding mountain front.
  • Percent Increase or Decrease
    • "Out of" problems and "difference" problems.
  • Percent of a Number
    • In this lesson we will learn how to find the Amount and the Base. Here, we will present examples that require a minimum amount of writing.
  • Percents Are Ratios
    • How do percents express ratios? Percent increase or decrease. Estimations.
  • Perfect Square Trinomials
    • The square of a binomial come up so often that the student should be able to write the trinomial product quickly and easily.
  • Permutations and Combinations
    • Learn about permutations, factorial representation of permutations, permutation problems, combinations, factorial representation of combinations, and combination problems,
  • Persuasive Essay
    • Instructions on how to write a persuasive essay.
  • Phonetics
    • The following are some of the signs of the American phonetic system. When used for transcription, sounds are put inside square brackets, ie [ ]. Related and similar sounds in a language often occur in complementary distribution, that is, each of these sounds appear only in unique situations.
  • Physics Calculators
    • Contains Physics Calculators and Tutorials, such as the Frequency and Wavelength Calculator, which also calculates photon energy
  • Physiography
    • The Mojave Desert comprises the southwestern quadrant of the Basin and Range physiographic province, a vast region dominated by rugged mountain ranges and alluvium-filled basins that extends from northern Nevada to Mexico and from the California's Sierra Nevada and southern coastal region eastward to central Arizona and Utah.
  • Plagiarism
    • Instructions on how to avoid plagiarism. Includes a video.
  • Playas
    • A playa is a dry, vegetation-free, flat area at the lowest part of an undrained desert basin. It is a location where ephemeral lakes form during wet periods, and is underlain by stratified clay, silt, and sand, and commonly, soluble salts.
  • Population Division Working Papers
    • A list of 96 working papers regarding population division.
  • Powers of 10
    • Which numbers are the powers of 10? How do we read a whole number? What do we mean by the place value of a digit? How do we write a whole number in expanded form? How do we round off a whole number to a given place?
  • Prepositions for Time, Place, and Intoducing Objects
    • This section deals with prepositions and their standard uses in the English language.
  • Prepositions of Direction: To, On (to), In (to)
    • This section deals with prepositions and their standard uses in the English language.
  • Prepositions of Location: At, In, On
    • This section deals with prepositions and their standard uses in the English language.
  • Prepositions of Spatial Relationship
    • This section deals with prepositions and their standard uses in the English language.
  • Prevent Blindness with Vitamin A
    • If your children are having trouble seeing, you probably want to put something special over their eyes _ a pair of eyeglasses. But for a common kind of vision problem, the kind that starts when a child has trouble seeing in dim light, you should put something special in their stomachs.
  • Prime Numbers
    • Skills in arithmetic; all about prime numbers.
  • Principles for Writing More Clearly
    • An important component of “good writing” is that readers can easily understand it. The Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology has compiled research-based principles that writers can follow to make text easier to understand, and this article explores these principles for writing more clearly.
  • Pronoun Case
    • This section has information about how to use pronouns correctly in the English language.
  • Proper Fractions, Mixed Numbers, Improper Fractions
    • We will see that everything we have learned about ratios will apply to fractions, because, as we will see, each numerator has a ratio to its denominator. And the fraction itself is a number that has a ratio to 1.
  • Proportionality
    • What does it mean to say that two quantities are directly proportional? How do we solve problems of proportionality? What does it mean to say that two quantities are inversely proportional?
  • Psychologist
    • A psychologist is a professional or academic title used by individuals who are either: linical, counseling, and school psychologists, organizational psychologists, or academics conducting psychological research or teaching psychology in a college or university.
  • Quadratic Equations
    • A quadratic is a polynomial whose highest exponent is 2. Learn about how quadratics feed into the quadratic equation.
  • Quadratic Trinomials
    • A trinomial is a sum of three terms, while a multinomial is more than three.
  • Quadratics: Polynomials of the Second Degree
    • Quadratic is another name for a polynomial of the 2nd degree.
  • Radicals: Rational and Irrational Numbers
    • This mark √ is called the radical sign (after the Latin radix = root). The number under the radical sign is called the radicand.
  • Ratio and Proportion 1
    • A ratio is a relationship between two quantities of the same kind: A number of people to a number of people; an amount of money to an amount of money; a distance to a distance.
  • Ratio and Proportion 2
    • What is the Theorem of the Alternate Proportion? What is the Theorem of the Same Multiple? What percent of 100 is any number?
  • Rational and Irrational Numbers
    • Learn what a rational number is, which numbers have square roots, and more.
  • Rational Exponents
    • The symbol √a, as we have seen, symbolizes one number, which is the non-negative square root of a. Learn how to practice rational exponents here.
  • Rational Functions
    • Learn about rational functions, which are quotients of polynomials.
  • Reading a Play
    • This resource will help in reading and writing about plays.
  • Reading Aloud
    • This handout explains some of the benefits of hearing your writing read aloud. It offers tips on reading your draft yourself, asking a friend to read it to you, or having it read by a text-to-speech program or app.
  • Reading Better and Faster
    • For most people, it is easy to learn to read faster. Your reading rate is often just a matter of habit. But to begin, you may need to try to change some habits and try these tips presented in this article.
  • Reading Strategies
    • As part of this class, I will be teaching students strategies for reading in any content such as science or social studies as well as novels and literature.
  • Reciprocals and Zero
    • Covers the definition of devision, and the rules of 0.
  • Rectangular Coordinates
    • The coordinate 0 is called the origin of coordinates. Points to the right of 0 are labeled with positive numbers: 1, 2, 3, etc. Points to the left of the origin are labeled with negative numbers: -1, -2, -3, etc. . Those coordinates are the "addresses" of those points.
  • Recycling is Important
    • Recycling is one of the best ways for you to have a positive impact on the world in which we live. Recycling is important to both the natural environment and us. We must act fast as the amount of waste we create is increasing all the time.
  • Reflections of a Graph
    • Consider the first quadrant point (a, b), and let us reflect it about the y-axis. It is reflected to the second quadrant point (-a, b).
  • Relative Pronouns in Non-Defining Clauses
    • This handout provides detailed rules and examples for the usage of relative pronouns (that, who, whom, whose, which, where, when, and why).
  • Religion and Politics
    • This article covers topics such as separation of church and state, liberalism, and tolerance
  • Removing Word Clutter
    • Instructions on how to remove unnecessary words from an essay.
  • Renaissance Portraits
    • The idea of the renaissance is complicated and full of problems of interpretation and definition. The expression "Renaissance" is a value-charged expression because it carries with it a whole series of connotations that go beyond just the simple meaning of "rebirth."
  • Research Paper FAQ
    • Frequently asked questions to keep in mind before writing a research paper.
  • Revising
    • A checklist for revising final-draft essays.
  • Revising Drafts
    • This handout will motivate you to revise your drafts and give you strategies to revise effectively.
  • Ringing of the Changes (The Shape of 4)
    • Learn about the ringing of the changes, also known as the shape of 4.
  • Robert (Lee) Frost
    • Biography of the American poet Robert Frost.
  • Roots of Polynomials of Degree Greater than 2
    • Learn how to find the roots of a polynomial of degree greater than 2.
  • Rules for Derivatives
    • The definition of the derivative is fundamental. The student should be thoroughly familiar with it. From that definition it is possible to prove various rules, some of which are presented in this lesson.
  • Run-On Sentences
    • Instructions on how to avoid and fix run-on sentences.
  • Sand Dunes and Dust
    • Processes involving sand and dust transport play an important roll in shaping the landscape and the ecosystem of the Mojave region.
  • Sentence Clarity
    • If you're having sentence clarity problems in your papers, this handout might be just what you need. In the English language.
  • Sentence Fragments
    • Instructions on how to identify and correct sentence fragments.
  • Sentence Fragments
    • Provides an overview and examples of sentence fragments in the English language.
  • Sentence Patterns
    • This handout gives an overview of English sentence patterns. It will help you identify subjects, verbs, and clause connectors so you can analyze your writing style and improve it by using a variety of sentence patterns.
  • Sentence Structure
    • Descriptions and examples of the various parts of sentence structures.
  • Separable Phrasal Verbs
    • Provides an overview and lists of phrasal/two part verbs in the English language.
  • Sequence of Tenses
    • This handout explains and describes the sequence of verb tenses in the English language.
  • Short Division
    • Division means finding what number times the divisor will equal the dividend. Ways to practice short division.
  • Signed Numbers
    • The absolute value and the algebraic sign. Subtracting a larger number from a smaller. The number line. The negative of any number.
  • Simplifying Radicals
    • A square root radical is "simplified" when the radicand has no square factors.
  • Simultaneous Linear Equations
    • Practice simultaneous linear equations here.
  • Sisters of Midnight (A New Ballad to an Old Burthen) by Robert Buchanan
    • Poem by Robert Buchanan, a British poet, novelist, and dramatist, who lived from 1841 to 1901.
  • Slope of a Straight Line
    • Learn how to create a slope of a straight line and what it helps you analyze.
  • Smallest Quad with Integer Sides, Perpendicular Diags
    • What is the area of the smallest quadrilateral whose sides are all different integers and whose diagonals are perpendicular?
  • Social Policy
    • Social policy refers to guidelines, principles, legislation and activities that affect the living conditions conducive to human welfare.
  • Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister by Robert Buchanan
    • Poem by Robert Browning, a British poet of the Victorian era, who lived from 1812 to 1889.
  • Some Rules of Algebra
    • The rule of symmetry. Commutative rules. Inverses. Two rules for equations.
  • Song of the Fur-Seal by Robert Buchanan
    • Poem by Robert Buchanan, British poet, novelist and dramatist, who lived from 1841 to 1901.
  • Song of the Slain by Robert Buchanan
    • Poem by Robert Buchanan, a British poet, novelist, and dramatist, who lived from 1841-1901.
  • Sonnet 43 from Sonnets from the Portuguese by Elizabeth Barrett Browning
    • Poem by 19th century British poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning known for love poems.
  • Spanish Grammar
    • This website serves as a guide to understanding and learning Spanish grammar. It includes many topics such as pronunciation, articles and formation of the plural form, verbs, declination and pronouns, accent marks, and tenses.
  • Spanish Grammar: Online Advanced Spanish Book
    • A concise outline of essential grammar structures based on John Turner's "All the Spanish Grammar You Really Need to Know."
  • Speaksli French
    • Speaksli 9 videos
  • Speaksli Spanish
    • Speaksli 11 videos
  • Speaksli YouTube Playlists
    • At Speaksli.com, you'll learn new languages in an innovative, fun and engaging way. WATCH: Watch engaging and colorful animated videos that break each language down into logical and essential learning modules. LISTEN: Listen. Pause. Repeat. Hear English and foreign words and sentences spoken repeatedly to reinforce learning. SPEAK: Learn how to speak a foreign language while you are learning how to listen to it, understand it and read it. Speaksli training content was created by an American expatriate living in Switzerland who worked in Training and Development for Dell Southern Europe, as well as in the Department of Communications at The U.S. White House. She developed this proprietary language training approach based on her experiences living in foreign countries and having to learn new languages from scratch. She has also traveled to 45 countries and had to figure out the fastest, most effective way to communicate.
  • Spelling
    • This resource covers common spelling errors including accept/except, ei/ie, noun plurals, and –ible/able. In the English language.
  • Spelling: Common Words That Sound Alike
    • This resource covers common spelling errors including accept/except, ei/ie, noun plurals, and –ible/able.
  • Spring by Gerard Manley Hopkins
    • Poem by 19th Century British poet Gerard Manley Hopkins.
  • Statistics
    • A book about statistics- The area of applied mathematics concerned with the data collection, analysis, interpretation and presentation.
  • Statistics
    • Wikipedia's explanation of statistics: the study of the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.
  • Stream Channel Development in the Changing Mojave Climate
    • Progressive landscape development in any particular area is a function of many factors including climate (precipitation and seasonal weather patterns), vegetation, slope and drainage topography, bedrock character, tectonic history, and possibly other factors.
  • Study and Success Strategies
    • CalREN Project: Study Tips
  • Study Skills Handouts
    • These study skills handouts cover a range of topics, including concentration, memory, textbooks, time management, test perparation, test taking, goal setting, notetaking, vocabulary, and tips from tutors. Handouts are in PDF format.
  • Style
    • This handout will help you recognize potential problems in your writing style and learn to correct them.
  • Subject-Verb Agreement
    • Ever get "subject/verb agreement" as an error on a paper? This handout will help you understand this common grammar problem. In the English language.
  • Subtracting Whole Numbers and Decimals
    • How do we subtract by compensating? How do we subtract by regrouping?
  • Suggestions for Learning a Foreign Language
    • This page contains tips for acquiring a new language and advice on how to study it. This page is not specific to any one language but rather can be used for anyone wishing to acquire an additional language.
  • Symmetry of a Graph
    • A reflection through the origin is equivalent to a reflection about the y-axis, followed by a reflection about the x-axis.
  • Synthetic Division by x-a
    • Learn about the remainder theorem and the factor theorem.
  • Tennyson's Major Poems: The Comic and Ironic Patterns
    • When every life becomes tragic and the element of the special case is removed, human existence itself becomes ironic. Catastrophic disillusionment and destruction are not the lot of the godlike hero, inovking by his stature the terrible laws of retribution, but of every ordinary person going about the business of common life.
  • The "Limit" Infinity
    • Infinity, the student will see, is not a number, it is not a place -- and it is not a limit. Like any defined word, "infinity" stands for an idea that requires many words. In fact, when we say that the limit of a variable "becomes infinite" -- that it does not approach a limit.
  • The Advantages of Growing and Using Finger Millet
    • Finger millet is a staple crop in many communities. It is a source of good, healthy food during difficult times, such as drought or crop failure. It’s relatively cheap and easy to grow and stores well for years.
  • The Alien Vision of Victorian Poetry
    • The important writing of the Victorian period is to a large extent the product of a double awareness. This was a literature addressed with great immediacy to the needs of the age, to the particular temper of mind which had grown up within a society seeking adjustment to the conditions of modern life.
  • The Binomial Theorem
    • The solution to the problem of the binomial coefficients without actually multiplying out, is called the binomial theorem. It gives the coefficients for the expansion of (a + b)n.
  • The Chain Rule
    • This covers the derivative of a function of a function, the chain rule, proof of the chain rule, and more.
  • The Comeback of Quinoa
    • Quinoa is an ancient food crop of the Inca civilization that lived in the Andes mountains of South America three hundred years ago. In the Andes today, many farmers still grow quinoa because it is nutritious and tolerates harsh growing conditions.
  • The Derivative
    • Calculus is concerned with things that do not change at a constant rate. The function called the derivative will indicate that rate of change.
  • The Fibonacci Sequence For Visual Layout
    • The Fibonacci Sequence is a numerical convention that can be translated into many forms. It has been used in mathematics, architecture, poetry, music, art, and even as a system for predicting the growth of the stock market. It was developed by a man named Leonardo of Pisa.
  • The Formal Rules of Algebra
    • Algebra is a method of written calculations. A formal rule shows how an expression written in one form may be rewritten in a different form.
  • The Green House Effect
    • A report regarding the green house effect.
  • The Lady of Shalott
    • Poem by 19th century English poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson.
  • The Library of Congress Civil War
    • Article about civil war era mapping.
  • The Mojave River and Associated Lakes
    • The Mojave River is the largest drainage system in the Mojave Desert. It's modern extent and capacity is only a fraction compared to its extent during the Last Glacial Maximum.
  • The Multiplication Table
    • The importance of knowing the multiplication table cannot be overstated. "Multiplication" of a number is its repeated addition.
  • The Protestant Reformation
    • The Renaissance helped to secularize European society. Man was now the creator of his own destiny - in a word, the Renaissance unleashed the very powerful notion that man makes his own history.
  • The Pythagorean Distance Formula
    • Basic to trigonometry and calculus is the theorem that relates the squares drawn on the sides of a right-angled triangle.
  • The Roots or Zeroes of a Polynomial
    • Learn about the polynomial equation, the roots, or zeros, of a polynomial, the x- and y-intercepts, and more.
  • The Scientific Revolution, 1543-1600
    • One of the most important developments in the western intellectual tradition was the Scientific Revolution.
  • The Scientific Revolution, 1600-1642
    • Isaac Newton could conceive of and demonstrate the laws of universal gravitation, a practical understanding of motion was required. This practical understanding of mechanics would be provided by an Italian astronomer and mathematician by the name of Galileo Galilei.
  • The Scientific Revolution, 1642-1730
    • Past historians have looked at the history of modern science from precisely this point of view. Like the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution has been interpreted as explosive, a surge forward, a watershed.
  • The Slope of a Straight Line
    • Learn about the difference between a straight line, and a slope of a straight line.
  • The Social Contract or Principals of Political Right
    • With the famous phrase, "man is born free, but he is everywhere in chains," Rousseau asserts that modern states repress the physical freedom that is our birthright, and do nothing to secure the civil freedom for the sake of which we enter into civil society.
  • The Vegetarian Solution to Water Pollution
    • This article discusses the many ways a vegetarian diet impacts the Earth's natural resource of water.
  • This Dynamic Earth
    • A Story of Plate Tectonics, ranging from a historical perspective, mantel thermal plumes, and understanding plate motions.
  • Tiger Bay: A Stormy Night's Dream by Robert Buchanan
    • Poem by Robert Buchanan, a British poetry, novelist, and dramatist who lived from 1841-1901.
  • Tom Dunstan, or The Politician by Robert Buchanan
    • Poem by Robert Buchanan, a British poet, novelist, and dramatist, 1841-1901.
  • Tone and Audience Awareness
    • Tips on how to write in a tone that is appropriate for an audience.
  • Topic Sentences
    • Instructions on how to write clear topic sentences.
  • Transitional Devices
    • A discussion of transition strategies and specific transitional devices in the English language.
  • Translations of a Graph
    • A translation of a graph is its rigid movement, vertically or horizontally.
  • Trigonometry Worksheets
    • A great site with many trigonometry worksheets. Each one has model problems worked out step by step, practice problems, as well as challenge questions at the sheets end. Each one comes with an answer key.
  • Types of Memory
    • What we usually think of as “memory” in day-to-day usage is actually long-term memory, but there are also important short-term and sensory memory processes, which must be worked through before a long-term memory can be established.
  • Unit Fractions
    • What is a unit fraction? How can we express a whole number as a fraction? What do we mean by the complement of a proper fraction?
  • Using Articles
    • This handout discusses the differences between indefinite articles (a/an) and definite articles (the). In the English language.
  • Using Pronouns Clearly
    • This section has information about how to use pronouns correctly in the English language.
  • Variation
    • The subject of variation is more properly the subject of arithmetic, because it depends squarely on the concept of ratio.
  • Velocity and Rates of Change
    • One of the most important applications of calculus is to motion in a straight line, which is called rectilinear motion.
  • Verb Tense Consistency
    • This handout explains and describes the sequence of verb tenses in the English language.
  • Verbs With Helpers
    • This handout explains and describes the sequence of verb tenses in the English language.
  • Vision of the Man Accursed by Robert Buchanan
    • Poem by Robert Buchanan, a British poet, novelist and dramatist who lived from 1841-1901,
  • Vocabulary of Polynomial Functions
    • Functions can be categorized, and the simplest type is a polynomial function.
  • Volcanic Rocks and Associated Landforms
    • This page features examples of landform features associated with modern and ancient volcanism.
  • Water Pollution in the Home
    • Water pollution can cause many problems within and around the home. Common problems often occur with drinking water, pond water and swimming pool water.
  • Water Rights
    • Activies and information on the Water Rights.
  • Water Treatment Processes
    • This page discusses different methods to treat your water, including biological, chemical, and physical methods, as well as filtration and disinfection.
  • Weather Data - Selected Reporting Sites in the Greater Mojave Region
    • The table here provides a summary of selected sites and data from in and around the greater Mojave region that might serve as a proxy for weather conditions in different settings within the national preserve (none of the sites are within the preserve itself).
  • Weathering and Erosion in Desert Environments
    • Through time, erosion progressively carves canyons into mountainous areas. Mountain stream channels are self-perpetuating; as water gathers into rills and channels, the greater the flow, the greater the erosive force. Learn more about weathering and erosion in desert climates.
  • Weber, Max
    • A sociologist of religion, Weber studied the relationships between religion and economic behavior
  • What is a Number?
    • To begin our inquiry, let us ask, What is a number? And what does it mean to say that a number exists?
  • What is a Utopia?
    • A utopia can be defined as an ideal or perfect place or state, or any visionary system of political or social perfection. Read more to learn about utopian societies.
  • What is Anthropology?
    • What does it mean to be human? How did we come to be the way we are? To answer these questions, anthropologists undertake scientific comparative studies to determine how peoples of the world are similar and how they are different.
  • What is Good Writing?
    • Does the idea of essay writing put you off the idea of studying? This unit will help you to realise that essays are not to be feared. You will learn how important it is to answer the question that is set and that your style of writing is as communicative as possible. User can download this resource as a zip file.
  • What is Memory?
    • Memory is our ability to encode, store, retain and subsequently recall information and past experiences in the human brain.
  • What is Sociology?
    • Sociology is about the study of the world that you create through your actions, interactions, and complicit agreement with the “rules” of the world.
  • What is the Electoral College?
    • The Electoral College is a process, not a place. The founding fathers established it in the Constitution as a compromise between election of the President by a vote in Congress and election of the President by a popular vote of qualified citizens.
  • Why Are Planets Round?
    • Why is the Earth round? In science fiction, there are sometimes planets that are shown as having points or corners. Is that possible?
  • William Holman Hunt and Typological Symbolism
    • In 1873 when William Holman Hunt exhibited The Shadow of Death, The Saturday Review commented that the painter's intention "is to elevate materialism by mysticism, and to make even the accessories of an inanimate realism instinct with spiritual symbolism". Despite the writer's phrasing, which suggests that symbolism can be poured into a picture like a dose of castor oil, he is essentially correct: a major part of Hunt's concern with this painting, as with his other major works, was to create a modern pictorial symbolism that would solve the problems he found inherent in realistic styles.
  • William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
    • A brief biography of English playwright William Shakespeare
  • Writing Anxiety
    • This handout discusses the situational nature of writer’s block and other writing anxiety and suggests things you can try to feel more confident and optimistic about yourself as a writer.
  • Writing for a Chinese Business Audience
    • This provides examples and information on writing in English for both domestic and international audiences doing business in China. It includes information on letters and memos, as well as important stylistic considerations.
  • Writing for a North American Business Audience
    • This provides examples and information (written for non-North Americans) on how to write for a business audience. It includes information on getting to the point, keeping it simple, active and passive voice, nondiscriminatory language, and verb overgeneralizing.
  • Writing for an Indian Business Audience
    • This provides examples and information on writing for both domestic and international audiences doing business in India. It includes information on letters and memos, as well as important stylistic considerations. The handout concludes with the status of English in business writing compared with native Indian languages, such as Hindi and Bengali.
  • Writing in North American Higher Education
    • This is a primer for international students as an introduction to the basics of academic writing conventions for students who are new to American colleges and universities.
  • Writing Numbers
    • This section discusses numbers, how to write them correctly, and when to use numerical expressions instead.
  • Writing Report Abstracts
    • This handout discusses how to write good abstracts for reports. It covers informational and descriptive abstracts and gives pointers for success.
  • Writing Skills for Business English
    • This is a .zip file that contains several modules for learning professional, business English. Areas included are basic grammar, putting grammar to use, creating short writing, and applying English skills to special projects. This course is designed with non-governmental organizations in mind but can apply to anyone.
  • Writing Transitions
    • A discussion of transition strategies and specific transitional devices.