Format: Web Page

Resources for Zambian nursing students
  • 10 Essential Actions for Effective TB Infection Control
  • 12 Lead EKG Tutorial
    • An interactive multimedia learning activity for healthcare provider students wishing to enhance their knowledge of 12-lead EKG electrode placement on the human body.
  • 5 Lead EKG Tutorial
    • A multimedia self-paced tutorial for nursing students wishing to enhance their understanding and practice 5 lead EKG electrode placement online.
  • A Book for Midwives (Hesperian)
    • A vital resource for practicing midwives and midwifery training programs around the world. The revised 2004 edition preserves the original book's clear language, medical accuracy, and focus on simple, low-cost treatments, but has been reorganized and extensively revised to better support care during labor and management of obstetric emergencies.
  • A Clinical Guide to Supportive and Palliative Care for HIV/AIDS
    • This manual addresses the many aspects of palliative care that are key in caring for persons living with HIV and AIDS. It contains information on the management of advanced HIV disease; psychosocial, cultural, and ethical issues; and care at the end of life. It also has a list of references for clinicians.
  • A Community Guide to Environmental Health (Hesperian)
    • From toilets to toxics, from watershed management to waste management, from raising crops to rising temperatures, how we use natural resources affects our health and well-being. This highly illustrated guide helps health promoters, development workers, environmental activists, and community leaders take charge of their environmental health.
  • A Community Health Approach to Palliative Care for HIV/AIDS and Cancer Patients in Sub-Saharan Africa
    • This monograph describes the current status and achievements of a joint project among five countries - Botswana, Ethiopia, United Republic of Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe – and the WHO. This report intends to guide the national health planners and public health programme managers within and outside Africa to conduct their own situation analysis and assessment of palliative care needs for HIV/AIDS and cancer patients.
  • A Guide to Providing Abortion Care
    • Based on Ipas' global experience developing implementing and monitoring abortion and post-abortion care programs, this comprehensive, 82-page manual gives readers tools needed to establish and improve abortion services.
  • A Primer on Sample Survey
    • After reading this course I expect you will have an understanding of the many facets of programing and carrying out a survey. The tasks that must be completed before starting to collect data, and the tasks to be performed during the data collection, not to be left to after the data collection is finished. The importance of not overdoing the statistical tests. Only test what was predefined to be tested. All other quotes of significance are merely descriptive. Exploratory data Analysis (EDA) is a very valuable tool for generating new hypothesis. Its findings can not be tested or the significance of the whole study will be severely compromised.
  • A Source of Error in Self-Reports of Pap Test Utilization
    • Utilization This module shows a study whose purpose is to explore in a sample of low-income and minority women whether women over-report Pap testing because other gynecological procedures are mistaken for it.
  • A Worker's Guide to Health and Safety
    • Some dangers, such as noise or lack of water and toilets, often affect all workers in one factory. Other dangers, like exposure to chemicals, harm workers doing certain jobs more than workers doing other jobs in the same factory.
  • ABCs of Childhood Vaccinations
    • CDC website with PowerPoints, teacher resources, video to play or download and text files for those with impairment.
  • ABG Tutorial
    • An interactive online learning activity for nurses and healthcare personnel about arterial blood gases (ABGs).
  • Absolute, Relative and Attributable Risks Pt. 1
    • The objectives of this course are to define measures of absolute, relative and attributable risk; identify major epidemiology study designs; estimate absolute, relative and attributable risks from studies in the epidemiology literature; and to interpret risk estimates for patients and apply them in clinical practice.
  • Absolute, Relative and Attributable Risks Pt. 2
    • The foundation of this work is the WHO DiaMond Project. DiaMond stands for ‘Diabetes Mondiale’, which is French for diabetes worldwide. Other objectives of DiaMond are to evaluate health care and the economics of T1D and to conduct international training programs on the epidemiology of diabetes.
  • Acquired Gastrointestinal Fistulae
    • From the monthly review entitled Surgery in Africa. This review discusses the management of acquired gastrointestinal fistulae common in the developing world.
  • Acute Pancreatitis Management in Low-Income Countries
    • From the monthly review entitled Surgery in Africa. The recognition, classification and management of acute pancreatitis are important clinical skills for all physicians treating patients with abdominal pain. Guidelines have been published for the diagnosis and management of acute pancreatitis. This review concentrates on how a modern understanding of this problem can inform management in low-income countries.
  • Acute Respiratory Diseases and Pnuemonias
    • The objectives of this module are to describe major causes and management of upper respiratory infections, describe major causes and management of acute bronchitis, describe major causes and management of pneumonias, and describe when antibiotics should be used in management of respiratory tract infections.
  • Adherence Support Worker Training Materials
    • This course teaches community volunteers to interact with patients in settings where they provide HIV education, treatment support, and ART adherence counseling. It also equips people to participate in the referral network and to reengage treatment defaulters. The material includes technical information and techniques for relationship building and couseling. Modules include didactic sessions, role plays, and group exercises.
  • Adrenal Physiology and Diseases
    • Online textbook including topics such as adrenal physiology and insufficiency, hormones, and endocrine related cancers.
  • Advanced Literature Searching
    • How to construct literature search enquiries using the thesaurus, focus or explode your search, use the search taxonomy to refine your search and combine these methods into an advance search protocol.
  • Advanced Quantitative Methods Pt. 1
    • The objectives of this module are to develop one’s definition of nursing science, to use the outcomes module to think about one’s area(s) of interest, to review quantitative methods, and to think about how one builds knowledge to improve health and nursing practices.
  • Advanced Quantitative Methods Pt. 2
    • The objective of this module is to look at research designs.
  • Advanced Quantitative Methods Pt. 3
    • The objective of this module is to look at measurement in quantitative research.
  • Advanced Quantitative Methods Pt. 4
    • The objective of this module is to look at the testing effects of intervention.
  • Adverse Events of Antiretroviral Drugs
    • These tables summarize the most common and most serious adverse events associated with antiretroviral medications used to treat HIV infection. The tables include adverse events that can occur with nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, and fusion inhibitors.
  • Africa's Orphaned and Vulnerable Generations Children Affected by AIDS
    • This document updates the 2003 report "Africa's Orphaned Generations". It incorporates new and refined estimates of the number of children orphaned in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as current research on the impact of AIDS and orphaning. Issues discussed include the scale of the orphan crisis, interactions between poverty and HIV, family structures in Africa, the impact of the crisis on children, and ways to support orphaned children and their caregivers.
  • AIDS Map: Nutrition and HIV
    • This chapter provides information on: the importance of a good diet if you have HIV, how anti-HIV drugs can affect the types of food and drink you consume, and changes to your diet that you may wish to consider if you have lipodystrophy, weight loss, or diarrhea.
  • AIDS Pathology Resources
    • Histology slides as well as an HIV tutorial.
  • Airborne
    • A powerful exploration into the challenges and solutions to addressing M/XDR-TB in the world today. The book, written by John Donnelly, features interviews, stories and images from across the globe.
  • Analysis, Reporting, and Feedback of Surveillance Data Pt. 1
    • This presentation concerns the analysis, reporting, and feedback of surveillance data.
  • Analysis, Reporting, and Feedback of Surveillance Data Pt. 2
    • This presentation looks at surveillance performance indicators the purpose of which is to monitor the quality of data collected by a surveillance system to identify parts of the surveillance and case investigation process that need improvement.
  • Analytic Review of the IMCI Strategy
    • To determine how IMCI could better contribute to improved child health outcomes, DFID, UNICEF, USAID, and WHO/CAH joined efforts to conduct an analytic review of the strategy. The review examined assumptions made when conceiving the strategy in 1996, as well as management, organization and policy issues, the three components of the strategy and their content, possible linkages with other child health related programmes and strategies, the implementation process, partnership, and the amount and flow of financial resources made available for child health and IMCI in countries and at international level.
  • Anatomy and Physiology Course I
    • First online course in an A&P course series from Western Governors University.
  • Anatomy and Physiology Course II
    • Second course in A&P course series.
  • Anatomy and Physiology Course III
    • Third course in A&P course series.
  • Anatomy and Physiology Tutorials
    • PowerPoint presentations that cover muscles, joints and the skeletal system.
  • Anatomy Learning Modules
    • Topics include: nervous system, joints and limb movements.
  • Anatomy Lesson
    • Each lesson will point out various structures found in the particular anatomical region being examined and then followed by a review of what has been covered.
  • Anatomy of the Human Body
    • The Bartleby.com edition of Gray’s Anatomy of the Human Body features 1,247 vibrant engravings—many in color—from the classic 1918 publication, as well as a subject index with 13,000 entries ranging from the Antrum of Highmore to the Zonule of Zinn.
  • Anatomy of the Kidneys
    • Aimed at pre-registration Nursing students studying human biology, this learning object introduces the external and internal anatomy of the kidney, including the anatomy of nephrons and corpuscles.
  • Antenatal Care
    • This section covers a range of important issues related to antenatal care.
  • Antibody Structure
    • Understand how an antibody's physical structure determines its interaction with antigen.
  • Antiretroviral Resistance in Clinical Practice
    • This book gives the reader insights into the more mechanistic aspects of resistance and the analyses that lie behind the interpretation of resistance. Most importantly, the book aims to provide an up-to-date guide to those aspects of resistance that have the greatest impact on clinical care. The authors of the chapters have internationally recognized expertise in the field of resistance and were chosen because of both their active involvement in research and their strong clinical background.
  • Antiretroviral Treatment in Zambia: A Study of the Experiences of Treatment Users and Health Care Workers
    • The research seeks to understand how health-seeking behaviour (particularly for VCT), adherence to ARV treatment, prevention for people with HIV and equity of access to ARV treatment programs, can be improved. It will focus on community engagement strategies that rely on community education and referral, as well as the significant involvement of people with HIV and other stakeholders in the community.
  • AP/Histology Photos
    • Images of neurons and epithelial, connective, and muscle tissue.
  • Archived Clinical Cases at Virtual Grand Rounds in Dermatology
    • Virtual Grand Rounds in Dermatology (VGR-D) is a fledgling gathering place for dermatologists the world over to meet with one another and share interesting and/or challenging patients. One may want to ask a question about diagnosis or therapy, present an interesting clinical photo or post a photo or micrograph.
  • Are Skilled Birth Attendants Really Skilled? A Measurement Method, Some Disturbing Results and a Potential Way Forward
    • Delivery by a skilled birth attendant (SBA) serves as an indicator of progress towards reducing maternal mortality worldwide.
  • ART Experienced Patients in Resource Limited Settings
    • This training is focused on 2nd and 3rd line HIV therapy with limited access to viral loads in India.
  • Arterial Puncture (ABG)
    • PowerPoint presentation demonstrating the procedure and transport of an arterial blood gas sample.
  • Aseptic Non-Touch Technique
    • Introduces the concept of ANTT, used to prevent infection during clinical procedures; includes a video demonstration.
  • Asthma Management Handbook
    • Written primarily for general practitioners and community pharmacists, the Handbook emphasizes a team approach to asthma care. It contains: updated diagnostic, management and prescribing guidelines, expanded material on asthma and allergy, exercise-induced asthma, occupational asthma, asthma in pregnancy and in older people, and comorbidities, more detail on diet and complementary medicine, new chapters on smoking cessation and asthma prevention, and practical advice on providing structured asthma care in the primary care setting.
  • At a Glance: Building Community Partnerships for Safer Motherhood: Home Based Life Saving Skills
    • This issue of the NGO Networks for Health bulletin describes the Home-Based Life Saving Skills (HBLSS) approach, training and implementation. HBLSS is a family-focused, community-based program to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality by increasing access to lifesaving care within the home and community, and by improving referrals.
  • Atlas of Breast Histopathology
    • The present virtual microscopy atlas currently features more than 150 digitized slides accompanied by concise descriptions. The atlas follows the recently published WHO classification of tumors of the breast.
  • Atlas of Head and Neck Pathology
    • This Atlas provides information on head and neck pathology with photo microscopic images. They are best viewed with Adobe Acrobat Reader. The site is maintained by the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, the Ohio State University Medical Center, U.S.
  • Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke
    • The atlas addresses the global epidemic of heart disease and stroke in six parts: cardiovascular disease; risk factors; the burden; action; the future and the past; and world tables. All topics of contemporary importance have been addressed through pictures and few words. The atlas is designed for use by policy makers, national and international organizations, health professionals and the general public.
  • Atomic Bonding
    • Examining ionic, covalent and mixed bonding in atoms.
  • Auscultation Library
    • Includes audio files of breath sounds with accompanying text.
  • Basic Anesthesia for Developing Countries Volumes 1 & 2
  • Basic Embryology Review Program
    • This Overview Chapter follows development from fertilization through birth. The small lower rightwindow will portray examples that will indicate the appearance of the embryo during the developmental period being examined in the large window.
  • Basic Facts About Leprosy
    • What it is and its transmission.
  • Basic Occupational Health Services: Strategy, Structures, Activities, Resources
    • This guideline was produced with the support of the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health as the first document in the series of new tool sfor implementation of the decision of the joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health to develop Basic Occupational Health Services in collaboration with the International Commission on Occupational Health, ICOH, and as a joint priority during the 5-year period.
  • Basics of Infection Control
    • Provides a broad overview of the various aspects of infection control and the importance of appropriate infection control practices, especially in facilities with a significant number of HIV and TB-infected patients. The course is intended for persons who provide patient care or whose job puts them in contact with blood and body fluids, including nursing staff, medical aides/assistants, physicians (non-management), and lab technicians and assistants.
  • Behavioural and Social Aspects of Malaria and its Control
    • The intention of this monograph is to highlight the importance of sociocultural factors in malaria control and to make clear that the fight against malaria and other infectious diseases is inseparable from the striving for socioeconomic and political equity.
  • Bioethics Tools
    • This index is a guide to various concepts and methodologies of bioethics. These tools are meant to help you reason through difficult cases or provide a different perspective that may help clarify complex situations. A frequently used ethical decision making framework is included, along with a sample case discussion.
  • Biostatistics on the Web
    • The self-study modules provided are meant as a primer of basic biostatistics as used by a practicing clinician. While this does not encompass the entire curriculum of biostatistics it is designed to aid you in an understanding of the scientific principles needed to evaluate the changes constantly occurring in medicine.
  • Blood Borne Pathogens and Standard Precautions
    • Standard precautions for the lab and clinical setting.
  • Blood Transfusion
    • Demonstration with photos on how to conduct a blood transfusion.
  • Blood Transfusion Complications
    • Report on possible complications of blood transfusions.
  • Breaking the Silence: Memory Books and Succession Planning--The Experience of NACWOLA and Save the Children UK in Uganda
    • This report describes lessons learned in Save the Children UK and NACWOLA's memory book project in Uganda. The report defines memory books, their uses, and their potential benefits. It also discusses potential links to other HIV/AIDS interventions including antiretroviral therapy.
  • Breast Cancer Control
    • Series of presentations covering topics such as early detection, diagnosis, managing breast cancer, and evaluation of breast cancer programs.
  • Brukitt's Lymphoma
    • PowerPoint presentation discussing Burkitt's Lymphoma in Africa.
  • Building Resilience in Children Affected by HIV/AIDS
    • This handbook is aimed at people who live and work with children affected by HIV/AIDS. It is intended to help parents, caregivers, and teachers understand children who are nursing a diseased parent or who have lost a parent. It provides practical advice for teachers and caregivers on how to support children who have experienced loss and death in order to help them cope.
  • Capacity Management of Nursing Staff as a Vehicle for Organizational Improvement
    • Capacity management systems create insight into required resources like staff and equipment. For inpatient hospital care, capacity management requires information on beds and nursing staff capacity, on a daily as well as annual basis. This paper presents a comprehensive capacity model that gives insight into required nursing staff capacity and opportunities to improve capacity utilization on a award level.
  • Capacity-Building Resources in Youth Sexual and Reproductive Health
    • These comprehensive training materials use interactive methods to cover all aspects of youth sexual and reproductive health (YSRH)-- from behavior change to program design, monitoring and evaluation. Designed as part of an initiative to build YSRH capacity in Southeast Asia, the materials are readily adaptable for other cultural settings.
  • Cardiac Pumping and Function of the Ventricular Septum
    • Online version of a thesis that explores the role and function of the ventricular septum.
  • Cardiology Explained
    • This is an online book that explains basic physiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms of cardiovascular disease in a straightforward and diagrammatic manner, gives guidelines as to when referral is appropriate and uniquely explains what the specialist is likely to do.
  • Cardiology Topic Reviews
    • This page contains links to a general review of major topics in cardiology. These reviews are written in an easy-to-understand way, yet they are at an advanced level. Each page also contains a link to quick fact sheets and slide presentations for each topic.
  • Cardiovascular Disorders
    • Merck Manual that provides useful clinical information to physicians, medical students, interns, residents, nurses, pharmacists, and other health-care professionals in a concise, complete, and accurate manner.
  • Cardiovascular Pathology
    • The heart and arterial system.
  • Cardiovascular/ Respiratory Lectures
    • Series of lectures from the University of Michigan.
  • Care After Child Birth
    • One review in this section finds no evidence to recommend psychosocial interventions to prevent postpartum depression; the related commentary advises that efforts should be directed towards early detection of depression. With regard to breastfeeding, a review reports that IEC activities can help promote the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. Another review provides evidence for the effectiveness of both professional and lay support in promoting continued breastfeeding.
  • Care During Childbirth
    • The reviews in this section provide critical evidence for the care of women during delivery, ranging from the beneficial effects of delayed cord clamping to the usefulness of misoprostol in treating postpartum haemorrhage.
  • Care of Surgical Patient
    • Merck manual that provides useful clinical information.
  • Care of the Client with Schizophrenia
    • In this simulation, the learner is introduced to a client with a medical diagnosis of schizophrenia admitted to the hospital. The nursing assessment includes information about the presenting problem, medical history, social history, current and past medications, and the mental status. The learner is provided a series of interactive questions so that knowledge can be applied.
  • Care of the Patient with Intracranial Disorder
    • PowerPoint presentation on the pathophysiology and care of a patient with ICP, head trauma, and tumors.
  • Case Based Pediatrics
    • An online introductory pediatrics textbook.
  • Case Control Studies
    • At the end of this lecture the learner should be able to know the various analytical studies, their types and their indications; to be able to choose the suitable analytical study for testing the hypothesis; to be able to analyze and test the causal hypothesis; and to be able to measure the various risks in population due to the suspected cause.
  • Case Crossover Design
    • The purpose of this module is to describe the concept of the case crossover design; overview the statistical methods for the analysis of the design; and to illustrate the limitation of the design.
  • Case Studies
    • Case studies in research ethics.
  • Case Studies in Endocrinology
    • The site has various cases, clinical presentation, laboratory presentation, pathophysiology and treatment to name a few.
  • Case Studies in Endocrinology
    • These case studies are provided to give you practice dealing with some of the topics such as evaluation of pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and reproductive endocrinology. Each case contains a clinical presentation followed by evaluative studies eventually leading to a diagnosis.
  • Case Studies in Environmental Medicine
    • A series of self-instructional publications designed to increase the primary care provider's knowledge of hazardous substances in the environment and to aid in the evaluation of potentially exposed patients.
  • Case Studies in Gastrointestinal Disorders
    • Cases on various Gastrointestinal disorders are presented.
  • Case Studies in Wound Healing (Proxiderm)
    • The site contains cases of various surgical procedures along with pre and post-surgery images.
  • Cases in Dermatology
    • The site presents various cases with their initial presentation, lab examinations and physical examinations, diagnosis, treatment, discussions along with pictures of the skin disorder.
  • Cases in Diabetes
    • The site is an archived version of diabetes cases. Each case is presented with their illness, then there are a set of hypothesis to explain the causative factor of the illness, then a diagnosis is made and more. It's an interactive website.
  • Cases in Gastroenterology
    • Cases are enlisted under Nutrition, Advanced Diagnostic and Management problem, Basic diagnostic and management problems and ethics.
  • CASP Appraisal Checklist
    • Questionnaires used in critical appraisal of evidence. The Critical Appraisal Skills program uses these questionnaires to appraise different types of research.
  • Cellular Images
    • Images of mechanisms of injury at the cellular level, and patterns of tissue injury.
  • Central Nervous System Pathology
    • The brain and spinal cord.
  • Central Venous Access
    • Procedure for a blood draw from a central line at Saddleback Memorial Medical Center.
  • Challenges in Pediatric and Adolescent HIV Care
    • A plenary lecture on pediatric and adolescent HIV care given at the 15th Conference of Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Both webcast slide presentation and the power point file are available.
  • Changing IV Bags and Tubes
    • Guide with photos demonstrating the proper techniques.
  • Child Health Course
    • This is one of the continuing professional development courses offered by African Medical Research Foundation (AMREF) through distance learning. This course has been revised and contains the most current concepts such as the integrated management of childhood diseases (IMCI), care of the newborn and HIV/AIDS.
  • Childhood Obesity
    • Examines the issue of childhood obesity from the perspectives of the biomedical, behavioural, and socio-economic models of health.
  • Children in Residential Care and Alternatives: Children at Risk Guidelines--Volume 5
    • The document looks at children in residential care and some of the alternatives available. It starts by defining the key terms and then provides best practice recommendations. It also includes case studies and references.
  • Cholera Outbreak Training and Shigellosis Program
    • Cholera Outbreak Training and Shigellosis Program offers advice on identifying, treating, and preventing cholera. The program also includes quizzes to test your knowledge and a diagram of a hospital for treating cholera.
  • Choosing Immunizations
    • In this highly interactive object, learners read client case studies and then select the vaccines that are appropriate to administer.
  • Classification of Fractures of the Long Bones
    • Includes text with images.
  • Clinical Anesthesia Textbook
    • More than 100 leading experts cover every aspect of contemporary perioperative medicine in one comprehensive, clinically focused, clear, concise and accessible volume.
  • Clinical Case Studies in Orthopedics
    • The International Center for Limb Lengthening (ICLL) in Baltimore, Maryland, is committed to providing the most technologically advanced treatments for children and adults with upper and lower limb length discrepancies, limb deformities, nonunions, bone defects, bone infections, joint contractures, foot deformities and short stature. The center is internationally recognized for its innovative treatments for Perthes disease, clubfoot, congenital femoral deficiency, fibular hemimelia, brachymetatarsia, ankle joint preservation and deformities associated with achondroplasia.
  • Clinical Cases in Endocrinology Clinical Cases and Images
    • This site contains a collection of case histories, with links to imaging and clinical examination and procedure websites, making this a site with a strong focus on clinical learning.
  • Clinical Impact of Changes in Drug Clearance
    • Examines some of the factors which affect total body clearance of a drug and how this, in turn, influences a drug’s clinical impact.
  • Clinical Microbiology
    • Online course from Western Governors University
  • Clinical Pain States
    • The objectives of this lecture are to define pain, identify the four neurophysiologic processes of pain, name the two broad classes of clinical pain states, be familiar with peripheral and central mechanisms of neuropathic pain, understand the difference between nociceptive nerve pain and neuropathic pain, be familiar with pain terminology, and understand the fundamentals of pain patient evaluation.
  • Clinical Practice Guidelines
    • Evidence based clinical guidelines for respiratory care.
  • Clinical Support Tools
    • Includes charting tools, ART eligibility, visit schedules, and adherence schedule tools.
  • Clinical Trials in Low Resource Settings
    • This presentation represents the record of a workshop on clinical trials that took place in Beijing on 29th, 30th and 31st March, 2002. The workshop was designed primarily for oncologists, and particularly medical oncologists, who are already participating in, or who wish to participate in, the conduct of clinical trials.
  • Collection of Pediatric Case Studies
    • Case Studies with pictures.
  • Colon Cancer: A Review
    • From the monthly review entitled Surgery in Africa. Although both colon and rectal cancer are similar in many respects, there are significant differences due, in part, to there anatomic locations. This review focuses on colon cancer.
  • Columbia Clinical Manual: Pediatrics
    • Provides an overview of essential pediatric services, implementation recommendations, clinical guidelines, and treatment algorithms. Includes resources on pediatric care for HIV/AIDS patients.
  • Common at Its Core: HIV-Related Stigma Across Contexts
    • This report presents findings from studies of HIV-related stigma in four countries: Ethiopia, Tanzania, Zambia, and Vietnam. The report discusses root causes, common expressions, and consequences of stigma, and suggests anti-stigma measures suitable for adaptation in the African and Asian regions.
  • Communication
    • This presentation is about aspects of communication important to a nurse manager/leader.
  • Community Empowerment
    • The training material on these pages is aimed at attacking poverty on two levels, the indvidual level, where organizing a credit organization and training in micro-enterprise is featured, and at the community level, where mobilization and management training are aimed at empowering low income communities.
  • Community Health Nursing
    • Case Studies.
  • Community Involvement Resources
    • This manual discusses how to conduct participatory assessments with youth and community members for improved youth reproductive health (RH) and HIV prevention, drawing on YouthNet's experience in Namibia, Tanzania, and Ethiopia with youth-led projects using these tools. The sections review YouthNet's approach to participation, guidelines for training community participants, and suggestions for adapting the methods and tools.
  • Community Mobilization
    • This series of training modules for the empowerment of low income communities includes a set of several documents about this intervention process.
  • Community Problem Solving and Immunization Strategy Development: Linking Health Workers with Communities Facilitator's Guide
    • The consultation outlined in this Facilitator’s Guide is designed to help trainers enable health workers consider ways to increase and sustain a high immunization coverage in their respective service areas.
  • Community Project Design
    • The training documents in this module include trainers notes, workshop handouts, and participants notes on the preparation of a community project design.
  • Complications of Late Pregnancy
    • From the monthly review entitled Surgery in Africa. The purpose of this review is to address two common complications of late pregnancy, abnormal vaginal bleeding and abnormally high blood pressure. The possible causes of bleeding will be discussed and a review of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy will be presented.
  • Comprehensive Cervical Cancer Control: Guide to Essential Practice
    • This is the pdf version of the WHO’s guide to cervical cancer. It is a large file that contains comprehensive coverage of recommended guidelines and practices.
  • Computer Assisted Clinical Cases
    • Three computer assisted infectious disease cases have been made available by Neal R. Chamberlain, Ph.D., Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine. The cases are designed to help medical students develop problem solving skills. The cases include a history, physical, laboratory, diagnosis, and treatment sections.
  • Computer Utilization for Diabetes Epidemiology
    • The objectives for this module are to become familiar with statistical software, know what to do before sitting down in front of the computer, and to learn how to generate and interpret results.
  • Confounding
    • At the conclusion of this module the learner will be able to understand the role of confounders in a study, learn the relationships between an exposure, disease and potential confounding factors, understand the difference between confounding and effect modification, and to learn methods to control confounding in study designs and in data analysis.
  • Consumer System
    • The system used to provide water to a household beyond the point of delivery from the water supplier to the vendor. Click on Case Studies or Tools to find relevant material for a specific stage.
  • Corticosteroid Randomization After Significant Head Injury
    • Head injury is a tremendously important global health problem. It is increasingly clear that many of the most important problems in head injury can only be solved through international collaboration.
  • Counseling Cards on Breastfeeding and Related Behaviors
    • The cards illustrate different ways messages can be visualized. Illustrations and messages should be adapted for each audience and tested with that audience in the place where they will be used.
  • Counseling the Postabortion Client: A Training Curriculum
    • A training guide for postabortion care providers (including doctors, nurses, and midwives) who interact with clients before, during, and immediately after the treatment procedure. This innovative curriculum expands the realm of traditional postabortion care counseling services—which tend to focus primarily on the provision of family planning information and methods and lack emphasis on emotional support and communication—by teaching crucial skills needed to improve communication between providers and clients.
  • Counselling for Caregivers
    • A set of self-instructional learning materials that provides caregivers with the necessary skills, knowledge and understanding to effectively support the healthy development of children and youth in their care. While it is written in the cultural context of Africa, the module can be used by caregivers anywhere in the world.
  • Couples HIV Counseling, Testing Intervention, and Training Curriculum (CHCT)
    • The CHCT Curriculum was field tested in South Africa, Kenya, and Botswana, and has been used in CDC-led trainings in Botswana, Malawi, Ethiopia, Namibia and Nigeria. It is intended for community HIV testing and counseling providers, but may be adapted for persons providing HTC in health facility settings.
  • Cox Regression II
    • This module further explores Cox regression as discussed in the introduction to Cox regression.
  • Cranial Nerves
    • This module is a portion of a course on exploration of the nervous system. The focus of this module is on the cranial nerves, their function and their assessment.
  • Critical Appraisal: or Making Reading More Worthwhile
    • At the conclusion of this module the learner will be able to go through the four stages of critical appraisal: clarify your reasons for reading, specify your information need, identify relevant literature, and critically appraise what you read.
  • Critical Care Medicine
    • Merck Manual that provides useful clinical information to physicians, medical students, interns, resdients, nurses, pharmacists, and other health-care professionals in a concise, complete and accurate manner.
  • Cyber Heart
    • Tutorials that review basic heart anatomy, physiology, and EKGs.
  • Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever: Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control
    • A practical guide to the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever. Now in its second edition, the book has been revised to reflect considerable recent gains in knowledge, particularly concerning methods of laboratory diagnosis and strategies for vector surveillance and control. All dimensions of the global dengue problem - from the characteristics of epidemics to the complexities of diagnosis - are addressed in this concise, yet comprehensive guide.
  • Dengue, Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever and Dengue Shock Syndrome in Context of Management of Childhood Illness
    • This review summarises the virology, transmission and pathogenesis of dengue, its significance by region, and its epidemiologic, demographic, and clinical features; assesses existing diagnostic guidelines; evaluates the evidence base for current treatment guidelines; examines IMCI adaptations of dengue algorithms; and discusses experience with home management of dengue and recognition of specific clinical signs and symptoms by caretakers.
  • Dermatologic Image Database
    • Dermatology images from the University of Iowa.
  • Dermatological Disorders
    • Merck manual that contains use clinical information for health care professionals.
  • Dermatology: Case-of-the-Month
    • The cases are presented by the months they were presented along with pictures, history of present illness, past medical history, medications, LABS, Social History, Physical Exam and diagnosis.
  • DermPath Tutor
    • Tutorial that is based on algorithms, presented as sequential list from which choices are made based on the features present in the pathologic specimen. By following the algorithm, diagnostic considerations are ultimately presented.
  • Descriptive Studies
    • At the conclusion of this module the learner will be able to define descriptive studies, know what types of descriptive studies are available, to be able to describe the components and populations of the disease
  • Design and Analysis of Cluster Randomization Trials in Health Research
    • At the end of this module the student will be able to distinguish experimental trials based on the unit of randomization (e.g. individual, family, community), appreciate the consequences of cluster randomization on sample size estimation and data analysis, and to identify key features of a cluster randomization trial which need to be included in reports.
  • Determining the Clinical Importance of Trial Results
    • This RLO demonstrates how to interpret and use clinical trial data (ARR, RRR, NNT, and confidence intervals) in practice.
  • Developing and Sustaining Nursing Leadership
    • This best practice guideline aims to identify and describe: leadership practices that result in healthy outcomes for nurses, patients/clients, organizations and systems; system resources that support effective leadership practices; organizational culture, values and resources that support effective leadership practices; personal resources that support effective leadership practices; and anticipated outcomes of effective nursing leadership.
  • Developing Materials on HIV/AIDS/STIs for Low-Literate Audiences
    • This publication is a comprehensive discussion of developing print materials for programs to use to reduce the incidence of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.
  • Developing World Trauma
    • The objectives of this module are to quantify the global burden of trauma. Contrast unintentional vs violence-related trauma, describe the major factors driving trauma burden, discuss various trauma prevention strategies, focus on road traffic accidents collective violence, and discuss resource-appropriate trauma management.
  • Development of the Human Heart
    • Online textbook that goes through the stages of heart development.
  • Diabetes and Metabolic Disease
    • PowerPoint presentation covering diabetes and metabolic disease.
  • Diabetes Complications
    • This unit looks at the way diabetes is managed once it has been diagnosed in order to reduce the risk of further complications. You will look at the role of each member of the team involved in the diabetes annual review and look at the risk factors involved with certain diabetes complications.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Tutorial
    • The islets of Langerhans are destroyed in type I diabetes mellitus.
  • Diabetic Foot - The Impending Crisis
    • From the monthly review entitled Surgery in Africa. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, prevention and practical management of the diabetic foot, from the context of the conditions in the developing world.
  • Diabetic Retinopathy Tutorial
    • Intended for medical students and doctors, this well-illustated resource contains sections on normal features of the eye compared to features of diabetes, classification, screening and treatment.
  • Diagnosis at a Glance
    • The site contains archived cases of skin disorders along with pictures and diagnosis.
  • Diagnostic Parasitology
    • Good collection of images from the University of Delaware.
  • Dietary Supplements
    • Merck Manual that provides useful clinical information to physicians, medical students, interns, residents, nurses, pharmacists and other health-care professionals in a concise, complete and accurate manner.
  • Different Kinds of Epidemiologic Studies
    • This lecture gives a simple overview of all the different kinds of studies epidemiologists use in looking for causes of diseases and injuries and for evaluating new treatments.
  • Diffuse Hormonal Systems and Endocrine Tumor Syndromes
    • Online Textbook that includes topics such as anatomy and development, carcinoid tumors, and treatment and management for disorders and tumors.
  • Disability and Rehabilitation in Developing Countries
    • The objectives of this module are to describe the personal, social and economic consequences of disability in developing countries, explain the importance of considering the cultural and social contexts of disability, recognize the role that all health care providers play in caring for the growing number of persons with disability and in the prevention of disability, and discuss the complexities of implementing medical rehabilitation and community-based rehabilitation.
  • Discontinuing IVs
    • Two videos demonstrating the proper procedures on how to remove.
  • Disease Epidemiology
    • At the conclusion of this module the learner will be able to define disease, know the theories of causation of disease, understand how it is initiated, understand how it is caused, understand how it is transmitted and then spreads, understand how and why it is distributed, understand how it can be prevented, and understand how it can be eradicated.
  • Disease of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
    • Online textbook with topics covering calcium and Vitamin D deficiencies, osteoporosis and disorders of phosphate metabolism.
  • Diseases, Disorders and Related Topics
    • This site contains an extensive list of linkts to "MeSH Classified" resources for the general public and health care professionals.
  • Distribution System
    • Distribution through piping from storage to consumption. Click on Case Studies or Tools to find relevant material for a specific stage.
  • District Health Management Team Training Modules
    • This publication is an effort to respond to the different needs for capacity building in management and implementation of health programmes and delivery of essential services. It reflects the thinking acquired from experience working with health sector reforms being implemented in the African Region. The District Health Management Training modules cover the principles that are applicable across the Region and are meant to guide and strengthen the management capacity of district health management teams.
  • Dose-Response Relation between Physical Activity and Health: an Observational Epidemiologic Perspective
    • This module will help the student understand that knowledge is useful in a clinical and public health setting, that dose-response is one criterion used to judge cause-and-effect relation in observational studies, and that dose-response can help us understand the biology underlying physical activity-disease relation.
  • Drug Calculations for Nurses
    • The site provides a tutorial for nursing students on basic drug calculations including: Metric Conversions, Tablet Dosage Calculations, Fluid Dosage Calculations, IV Flow Rate Calculations.
  • Drug Management and Rational Use
    • The aim of this course on drug management and rational use is to improve the quality of health care through cost-effective use of medicines.
  • E is for Epidemiology
    • a five-part training series developed by NCCPHP to introduce non-epidemiologists to the basic concepts of epidemiology, including: epidemiology in the Context of Public Health, Epidemiologist's Toolkit, Descriptive and Analytic Epidemiology, Surveillance, and Epidemiology Specialties Applied.
  • ECG Complex
    • Provides the user with a graphical representation of an ECG. The user can place their mouse over the different areas of an ECG. This provides them a more detailed explanation of each of these areas. The user can also view PR Intervals, QRS Measurements and QRS Complexes.
  • Educational Cases in Dermatology
    • These clinical cases have been prepared to illustrate diagnostic and management problems relating to skin disorders.
  • EKG Arrhythmia Review
    • A very brief overview of 14 arrhythmias shown in lead II with a normal EKG for comparison. When you click on arrhythmia, the key characteristics show up in a text box.
  • EKG Teaching Files
    • Contains information on sinus blocks, bundle branch blocks, rhythms, electrolytes and myocardial infarction.
  • EKG Tutorial
    • Provides descriptions and EKGs (both static and dynamic cartoons) to present material on basic electrocardiography and diagnosis of common cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial infarctions.
  • Electron Microscopy
    • A set of electron micrographs demonstrates normal, benign, and malignant pathological findings as seen by use of electron microscopy.
  • Electronic Grossing Manual
    • This manual combines touch-screen technology and text hyperlinks to provide quick and intuitive navigation through practical instructions and protocols for surgical specimen handling at the cutting bench.
  • Elements That Make up the Human Body
    • Introducing the periodic table of elements, and identifying the major elements involved in the human body and their roles.
  • Embracing a Behavior Change Communication Approach
    • A practical training to operationalize a behavior change communication on a community-based child survival project.
  • Embryology of the Central Nervous System
    • Website containing images and text concerning the development of the central nervous system.
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases: Spotlight on Influenza A
    • The objectives of this module are to understand common factors for disease emergence and identify specific examples of each, appreciate how ecological, human technological and behavioral changes have influenced the emergence of infectious diseases, understand antigenic drift and shift, understand the different types of Influenza and the basic biology of the virus, and outline recent history of avian influenza and discuss why it is an urgent public health concern.
  • Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
    • Merck manual that contains use clinical information for health care professionals.
  • Endocrine Course
    • Online course from the University of Michigan’s medical school.
  • Endocrine Disease and Pregnancy
    • Online textbook with topics including thyroid disease, pituitary and adrenal disorders, diabetes, and fetal endocrinology.
  • Endocrine Pathology
    • The thyroid, parathyroids, adrenal, pituitary and endocrine pancreas.
  • Endocrinology of Male Reproductive Systems
    • Online textbook that covers topics such as androgens, cancer and male contraception.
  • Endocrinology: an Integrated Approach
    • Online Textbook.
  • ENT&Dental Disorders
    • Merck manual that contains use clinical information for health care professionals.
  • Envirorisk
    • A case-based, problem-solving program in environmental risk assessment and risk communication. You will play the role of a public health professional as you go through the course. This course will develop your ability to investigate an environmental health problem and serve as a resource and risk communicator in your community.
  • Epidemiologic Design I
    • This module looks at descriptive epidemiology which studies the distribution of health problems.
  • Epidemiologic Design II
    • This module looks at Analytic epidemiology which studies the determinants of health problems.
  • Epidemiologic Study Designs
    • At the conclusion of this module the learner will be able to understand the concepts of different study designs, and to learn about the advantages and disadvantages of several study designs.
  • Epidemiology and Management of Common Skin Diseases in Children in Developing Countries
    • This review provides comprehensive data on the epidemiology of the commonest skin disorders in a developing country environment, documents their health importance, describes measures that could be used to control them, and permits a rational consideration of the problem.
  • Epidemiology Applications
    • At the end of this module the learner will be able to define epidemiology and explain its role as the foundation for public health; describe three common measures of disease frequency; discuss the strengths and weaknesses of three major epidemiologic study designs; and to identify at least two applications of the epidemiologic method.
  • Epidemiology Key Terms and Measures
    • At the conclusion of this module the learner will be able to define epidemiology and explain its role as the foundation for public health, describe three common measure of disease frequency, and to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of three major epidemiologic study designs.
  • Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications - I
    • In the case of diabetes mellitus, most of the excess morbidity and mortality is related to the chronic complications of the disease rather than to the acute problems that accompanies high or low blood sugars. In these two lectures, the epidemiology of these complications and their risk factors will be described with a particular focus on how the findings influence clinical practices.
  • Epidemiology: an Overview
    • This module provides a general overview of epidemiology.
  • Eradicating Guinea
    • worm disease booklet
  • Essential Elements of Evidence-Based Practice—An Introduction to EBP and the ACE Star Model
    • This discussion is an introduction to Evidence-Based Practice (EBP), identifying the essential elements of EBP and the EBP movement. The presentation is useful in introducing clinicians and administrators to the basics of EBP as agencies strategize about implementing EBP. The presentation provides the group with a common frame of reference and terminology from which to proceed into evidence-based quality improvement.
  • Essentials of Clinical Immunology
    • Immunology Case Studies
  • Establishing a Career in Global Health Research
    • The objectives of this module are to define research, choose a research topic, establish collaborations, identify roles and responsibilities, capacity building and training, intersect between research and policy, lifestyle issues, and successful student projects.
  • Establishing Referral Networks for Comprehensive HIV Care in Low-Resource Settings
    • This document is intended for implementers, stakeholders, and service providers at the facility and community levels who need guidance for creating or improving a referral network of HIV/AIDS-related services. The document aims to describe several models of referral networks and to provide tools and instructions that can be adapted to different settings.
  • Ethical Approaches to Gathering Information from Children and Adolescents in International Settings: Guidelines and Resources
    • This publication aims to provide practical guidance to help program managers and researchers understand and uphold ethical standards when planning and implementing information-gathering activities among children and adolescents, and promote discussion of ethical issues when working with children and adolescents among people of different backgrounds and training who gather information for different purposes.
  • Ethics Course
    • Online ethics course from Western Governors University
  • Ethics Manual 5th Edition
    • The fifth edition of the American College of Physicians Ethics Manual covers emerging issues in medical ethics and revisits old ones. It reflects on many of the ethical tensions faced by internists and their patients and attempts to shed light on how existing principles extend to emerging concerns.
  • Events of the Menstrual Cycle
    • This RLO describes the timing and main events for each of the phases of the menstrual cycle. It concentrates on the main events occurring in the ovary and uterine wall during these phases.
  • Evidence Base for the Community Management of Pneumonia
    • This report recommends future steps for addressing policy and management issues, as well as outstanding operations and clinical research questions related to community management of pneumonia.
  • Evidence Based Cancer Control
    • PowerPoint presentation concerning evidence based practices in cancer control.
  • Evidence-Based Practice: An Interprofessional Tutorial
    • This tutorial is designed for students in healthcare fields, medical professionals, faculty, and anyone else interested in evidence-based practice.
  • Examination of the Eye in the Emergency Room
    • PowerPoint presentation with clinical cases and images.
  • Expanding and Strengthening Community Action: A Study of Ways to Scale Up Community Mobilization Interventions to Mitigate the Effect of HIV/AIDS on Children and Families
    • The goal of this study was to develop a set of recommendations on how to scale up effective, sustainable community mobilization and capacity-building interventions to mitigate the effects of AIDS on children and families in the countries most seriously affected by the pandemic. The team studied the program experiences and approaches in Malawi and Zimbabwe.
  • Facilitative Supervision: An Example of Strengthening Leadership & Management for Health Action
    • As part of the East, Central and Southern African College of Nursing’s 7th Scientific Conference, this presentation introduces the facilitative approach to supervision, which aims to improve providers’ performance and the quality of health care services.
  • Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers
    • This book offers clinic-based health care professionals in developing countries the latest guidance on providing contraceptive methods.
  • Female Geintal Tract Pathology
    • The female reproductive system.
  • Female Reproductive Endocrinology
    • Online textbook covering topics such as physiology, menstrual cycle, contraception, and disorders.
  • Fetal Blood and Circulation
    • Reference sheet with a diagram of fetal blood circulation.
  • FHI/UNAIDS Best Practices in HIV/AIDS Prevention Collection
    • Encompassing a broad body of knowledge and expertise, this book is centered on HIV/AIDS prevention in the non-industrialized world. It offers a substantial number of models that may be replicated around the world. From this group of interventions, 20 initiatives have been chosen that are considered to be of global importance for dissemination through a case study approach.
  • First Principles of Gastroenterology
    • Provides information on various topics within gastroenterology including diagnosis and treatment of related diseases and conditions.
  • Focus on Field: Epidemiology
    • This site contains a series of pdf files and presentation slides about topics on "practical approaches" in field epidemiology, including management of disease outbreaks. The information is intended primarily for US health professionals, but the content is clear, generic and applicable in any country.
  • Food and Nutrition Implications of Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource Limited Settings
    • Provides information on food and medicine combinations that may inhibit ARV therapy effectiveness, encumber nutrient delivery, or cause dangerous side effects. 2004. Available in English and French in PDF format.
  • Forensic Pathology
    • Images of patterns of injury associated with trauma, along with medicolegal investigations.
  • From Faith to Action - Strengthening Family and Community Care for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Sub-Saharan Africa
    • This publication highlights the programs and strategies that help ensure that orphans and vulnerable children affected by HIV remain in family care. It describes organizations that are established by people of faith in the areas of Sub-Saharan Africa that are hard hit by HIV/AIDS. Topics addressed include home-based care, education, psycho-social needs, abuse, and legal issues.
  • Gastroenterology Cases - Clinical Cases and Images
    • Cases are presented on liver and Billary tree, Pancreas, GI bleeding, and other.
  • Gastrointestinal Disorders
    • Merck manual that contains useful information for health care professionals.
  • Gastrointestinal Pathology
    • The digestive tract from esophagus to rectum.
  • Gastrointestinal Tubes
    • PowerPoint presentation demonstrating the proper procedure for inserting a gastrointestinal tube.
  • GEE and Mixed Models for Longitudinal Data Pt. 1
    • This module is part one of a compilation of mixed models on longitudinal data.
  • GEE and Mixed Models for Longitudinal Data Pt. 2
    • This module is part two of a compilation of mixed models on longitudinal data.
  • Gender and Health: a Global Perspective
    • The objectives of this module are to illustrate how gender affects health status, describe barriers to women’s health, describe the impact of limited sexual and reproductive health services on global health and development, understand the role of gender in the Global HIV/AIDs epidemic, and review global development goals related to gender.
  • GINA Teaching Slide Sets
    • PowerPoint slide set summarizing GINA's objectives, documents, and management recommendations, with background information about asthma and the burden of this disease.
  • Giving Safe Injections: Using Auto-Disable Syringes for Immunization
    • This manual is intended for health workers and covers five different lessons related to safe injection of vaccine: disease transmission through unsafe injection, safe selection and reconstitution of vaccine, preventing needlestick injuries through safe injection practices, and an introduction of the autodisable syringe. This manual can be presented by a trainer or reviewed by health workers alone or in groups.
  • Global Child Health Part 1: Overview of Problems and Intervention
    • The objectives of this module are to define most commonly used measures of child mortality, list 5 leading causes of childhood death worldwide, list 5 underlying causes of child mortality, define strategies for delivering interventions to combat childhood mortality, describe major “actors” in global child health, and state percent of childhood deaths that can be prevented with interventions that are currently available.
  • Global Guideline for Type 2 Diabetes
    • Takes into account 19 specific health-care domains and includes topics of importance and controversy concerning Type 2 diabetes.
  • Global Health and Development: The Basics
    • The objectives of this module are to define public health and its relevance to global health, outline leading causes of death, introduce importance of class-based disparity, look at the success and failure of global health, outline other determinants of health, outline importance of health in the global development agenda.
  • Global Health in Historical Perspective: The Uses of History
    • The objectives of this module are to discover the pre-history of ‘global health’, and to develop strategies for using history as a global health ‘laboratory’ (via comparing historical and contemporary responses to global health problems, and via accessing the efficacy, the successes, and the failures of different health interventions and strategies).
  • Global Occupational Health
    • The objectives of this module are to understand the importance of global occupational health and limited resources, understand prominent positions UN agencies have in occupational health and limitation imposed by member states, the complexity of the global workforce and inadequacy of laws and enforcement to protect workers, , and the role that labor plays in occupational health, and appreciate the difficulty of interpreting global programs when industry asserts such commanding control over occupational health.
  • Global Orthopaedics and Burden of Musculoskeletal Injury
    • The objectives of this module are to examine global orthopaedic issues, estimate musculoskeletal burden of disease, cost effectiveness of surgery in developing countries, how to improve surgical interventions in developing countries, and current opportunities for orthopaedic surgeons.
  • Global Strategy for Asthma Prevention and Management
    • Evidence-based guidelines for asthma management and prevention, with citations from the scientific literature.
  • Globalization and Its Impact on Health
    • The objectives of this module are to understand changes in the global economy that affect health, identify global public health priorities and conflicts with prevailing economic and trade policies, articulate how trade agreements can restrict access to affordable health-related services and medicines, public health regulations that protect health such as tobacco and alcohol control measures, health professional workforce, and food supply, and to provide examples of campaigns to bring public health’s into global economic policy.
  • Glove Use
    • Explains the appropriate use of gloves in a clinical environment.
  • Grand Round Archives
    • The Archive contains information about laryngology, neoplasms of the head and neck, otology, neurology, pediatric otolaryngology, facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, and rhinology. It includes case presentation, a bibliography and images. The Archive is intended for ENT doctors and related health care providers.
  • Guidance for Nurse Prescription and Management of Antiretroviral Therapy
    • Provides a road map for conceptualizing and initiating the expansion of the nursing scope of practice to include ART prescription and management.
  • Guide for Qualitative Research to Improve Newborn Care Practices
    • This guide provides a ready reference tool for conducting qualitative or formative research and planning a behavior change communications strategy to improve newborn care practices. It includes supporting information for the less-well informed on the technical areas of Essential Newborn Care (ENC) and Behavior Change Communication (BCC).
  • Guidelines for Developing Home-Based Reminder Materials: Helping Families Save Sick Children
    • These guidelines reflect experiences and lessons learned from the multi-country Mothers Reminder Materials initiative. They describe a practical approach for creating materials to help families recognize danger signs and know when they need to seek immediate medical care for a sick child. Reports available in PDF format.
  • Guidelines for HIV/AIDS Interventions in Emergency Settings
    • This resource contains guidelines to enable governments and cooperating agencies, including U.N. Agencies and NGOs, to respond to HIV/AIDS during the early phase of emergency situations. It covers both HIV prevention and care in high- and low-prevalence settings.
  • Guidelines for Performing Breast and Pelvic Exams
    • Using clear illustrations and simple language, the Guidelines present a step-by-step approach for performing breast and pelvic examinations and teaching breast self-examination to women. Throughout the Guidelines, there are "tip boxes" with suggestions for helping the woman feel more comfortable during the examinations and for making the examinations easier for the clinician to perform.
  • Guidelines for Pre- and Post Testing
    • This guide will provide you with information on when and how to use pre- and post-tests, tips for developing good questions, instructions for how to validate and administer pre- and post-tests, and a description of how to analyze results.
  • Guidelines for the Management of Sexually Transmited Infections
    • This publication provides treatment recommendations for comprehensive management of patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the broader context of control, prevention and care programmes for STIs and HIV. It covers both the syndromic approach to the management of patients with STI symptoms, and the treatment of specific STIs. It also provides information on the notification and management of sexual partners and on STIs in children.
  • Gynecologic Emergencies
    • From the monthly review entitled Surgery in Africa. Online guide to diagnosing and managing abdominal disorders, not just involving the GI tract, but also those of other organ systems such as the genitourinary tract.
  • Gynecology & Obstetrics
    • Merck manual that contains useful clinical information for health care professionals.
  • Hand Hygiene
    • Aimed at healthcare practitioners, this learning object describes why hand hygiene is so important in a healthcare setting, then uses video clips to demonstrate correct, and incorrect, hand washing techniques.
  • Hawkeye Anatomy
    • Online presentation/text.
  • Health Assessment and Promotion
    • This course focuses on the complete health assessment, the nursing process, and its relationship to the prevention and early detection of disease in clients across the life span. This course introduces processes of health assessment: interviewing, history-taking, and physical assessment. Dominant models, theories and perspectives are used to explain health behavior are considered in relation to evidence-based health promotion and health education strategies. Students are also expected to identify and apply pathophysiological principles to selected health issues across the lifespan.
  • Health Care Quality Assessment
    • The objectives of this module are to describe the concept of health care quality, outline why health care quality has become a major political and economic concern across different types of health care systems, discuss major types of quality assessment methods at both policy and institutional levels of analysis, look at how and why payment methods are increasingly being linked to quality monitoring systems, and to describe the need to continually improve health care quality assessment methods and use outcome data to improve health care systems.
  • Healthy Living: A Counseling Guide for Health Workers on Opportunistic Infections, Antiretroviral Therapy, Management of ART Side Effects
    • New collection of low-literacy guides and brochures covering ART and opportunistic infections, with both English and Swahili versions of some materials available. The collection includes flip charts for healthcare workers to use while counseling patients about opportunistic infections, antiretroviral treatment and potential ART side effects using simple expressions and pictures.
  • Heart Attack Animation
    • Animation illustrating a heart attack.
  • Heart Conditions
    • Resources including videos about heart conditions from St. Jude Hospital.
  • Helping Children Who are Blind
    • This book contains information how to help blind or low vision children learn, provides examples of activities to help them learn new skills, and contains information to help caregivers support one another and to help parents learn from one another and work together. PDF format.
  • Helping Children Who Are Deaf
    • This book was written primarily to help parents and other caregivers of young children who are deaf or cannot hear well assist deaf children in living life successfully. PDF format.
  • Helping Parents in Developing Countries Improve Adolescents' Health
    • Highlights the importance of parents in preventing adolescent health risk behaviours, the ways in which parents influence these behaviours, and their implications for programmes aiming to improve adolescent health.
  • Hematopathology
    • The peripheral blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen.
  • Hepatic & Biliary Disorders
    • Merck manual that contains use clinical information for health care professionals.
  • Hepatic Pathology
    • The liver.
  • History of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
    • PowerPoint presentation detailing the history of acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
  • Histotechniques
    • This tutorial describes and illustrates the processes involved in making a microscopic glass slide from tissues examined in the pathology laboratory.
  • HIV and AIDS
    • Learn about HIV's interaction with the immune system and how current treatments interrupt the HIV life cycle.
  • HIV Basics Course for Nurses
    • Designed to train nurses to work with HIV-infected patients. It contains comprehensive training materials on basic HIV, AIDS and antiretroviral therapy (ART).
  • HIV Basics for Health Professionals
    • The objectives of this module are to learn the global epidemiology of HIV, economic impact of HIV/AIDs, history of HIV/AIDs, including treatment, international programs and funding, HIV in popular culture, pathophysiology, transmission, and diagnostics.
  • HIV in Schools: Good Practice Guide to Supporting Children Infected or Affected by HIV
    • This guide provides schools and local education authorities with practical information and suggestions on ways of supporting children and young people living with HIV. It addresses schools' concerns about HIV and sets out some simple ways in which a school can provide a supportive environment for infected and affected children.
  • HIV Medicine PDFs
    • Free PDFs of a special issue of the European Journal of Medical Research.
  • HIV Prevention in Mothers and Infants
    • PowerPoint presentation containing PMTCT stratgies.
  • HIV Prevention with Especially Vulnerable Young Poeple - Case Studies of Success and Innovation
    • This publication, a joint effort between the WHO and the UK Department for International Development, outlines several principles and priorities in the field of adolescent reproductive health in the context of HIV/AIDS, and offers case studies from South America, Africa, and Asia to highlight examples and best practices.
  • HIV Screening Visuals
    • This illustrated flipchart is designed to be used in counseling patients with low literacy about HIV transmission, testing, and interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission.
  • HIV/AIDS Clinical Case Studies -- 101 Cases for Training Clinical Staff
    • This book is written for doctors, clinical officers and nurses who work in resource-limited settings and who are caring for HIV/AIDS patients. It is meant for health personnel who are new to the management of HIV/AIDS and who are working in areas where patients are unable to pay for the most advanced tests. This book is a training tool, and by studying the cases it contains, one can obtain a good orientation for the rational management of HIV-infected patients.
  • HIV/AIDS Counseling
    • PowerPoint presentation on counseling patients with HIV/AIDS.
  • HIV/AIDS Palliative Care
    • The curriculum is divided into modules, with supporting educational materials provided for each topic. Each module consists of interactive lectures in the form of powerpoint presentations, slide notes, skills building and experiential exercises, learning objectives, sample agendas, evaluation forms, suggested handouts, and resource lists.
  • HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care in Resource - Constrained Settings: A Handbook for the Design and Management of Programs
    • Offers state of the art knowledge on designing and managing HIV/AIDS programs. The handbook is intended to be used by program mangers, technical and programmatic field staff, the staffs of donor and international partner agencies, health care providers, and field researchers.
  • HIV/AIDS: Overview for Nurses--How HIV Causes AIDS
    • This lecture will provide the following information: an explanation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); an overview of the normal immune system; a review of the effects of HIV on the immune system.
  • Home Hazards
    • Presents a reconstructed scene of a home visited by a health visitor; the student seeks areas of concern identified by the health visitor.
  • Home Truths: Facing the Facts on Children, AIDS, and Poverty
    • A final report from a working group, the Joint Learning Initiative on HIV/AIDS, summarizing key findings and recommendations from this research and advocacy consortium. The working group was divided into 4 principle learning groups researching strengthening families, community action, expanding access and social and economic policies. The report primarily urges HIV/AIDS programs to be more focused on families and communities in order to serve vulnerable children.
  • Hormones, Receptors and Control Systems
    • Textbook covering: overview of Endocrinology, Hormones, Receptors and Target Cells, Hormone Chemistry, Synthesis and Elimination, and Control of Endocrine Activity.
  • Host Defenses
    • Tutorial in which the student categorizes defense mechanisms as specific or non-specific.
  • How Can We Help? Approaches to Community-Based Care: A Guide for Groups and Organisations Wishing to Assist Orphans and Other Children in Distress
    • This manual is a comprehensive guide to developing and implementing community-based orphan care projects in Zimbabwe. The document starts with a general discussion of community care strategies and ways to keep children with families. The second part of the document is a toolkit that includes, sample project forms and documents, tools for working with foster parents, and an outline for training community child care volunteers. Although specific to Zimbabwe, the document provides an excellent outline for adaptation in similar settings.
  • How to Conduct a Literature Search
    • Practical examples of searching databases of journal articles (eg CINAHL, BNI), including screen movies of actual searches.
  • How to Conduct a Meta-Analysis
    • At the end of this module the student will be able to define meta-analysis, select studies for a meta-analysis, identify different types of models, calculate summary effects, and interpret results of a meta-analysis.
  • Human Anatomy and Physiology Lab
    • This resource was developed to help students study materials for laboratory practical exams. Each section contains a series of images with questions of the type typically found on these exams. The answers to each of the questions can be found by scrolling down the page.
  • Human Anatomy Online - State University of New York
    • It is the intent of this dissection manual to provide a means to facilitate the learning of human anatomy. The creation of this dissection manual, and the computer software program with the collection of videodisc images which accompany it, were developed by a team of individuals who place high value on education. While creating this multimedia approach to the study of human anatomy, the authors have been guided throughout by a single goal: to provide students and educators with a resource to enhance the discovery process inherent in the study of the human body.
  • Human Embryonic Development
    • Animation of the Carnegie stages 1 to 23 of human embryonic development during the first 8 weeks.
  • Human Parasitology
    • Tutorial in the form of Images with Questions and Answers.
  • Human Resources for Health: A Worldwide Crisis
    • The objectives of this module are to appreciate the importance of the healthcare workforce, understand factors affecting workforce supply and requirements, and basic methods for their estimation, learn about the variables affecting workforce distribution and interventions to improve distribution, appreciate management issues that contribute to the workforce crisis, recognize difficulties in estimating supply, requirements, and in making workforce changes, and understand changing health workforce priorities and the implications for the future.
  • Hydrogen Bonding
    • Outlining the nature of the hydrogen bond, how it differs from other molecular bonds, and its importance in biological molecules, particularly proteins.
  • Hypertension Online
    • Collection of slide talk resources for physicians and researchers to use as self-study tools or in educating others. The Slide Library is organized into slide sets addressing specific areas of organ and systemic damage associated with hypertension.
  • Hypoglycaemia of the Newborn
    • This review provided background information (Physiology, pathology, definitions) and recommendations for the prevention and management of hypoglycaemia of the newborn.
  • I is for Investigation
    • Contains seven modules that use case studies to examine the concepts of an outbreak investigation.
  • IMCI Chart Booklet
    • The IMCI chart booklet is a critical teaching and learning tool that summarizes the process and content of the nationally adapted IMCI clinical guidelines. The booklet is designed as a job aid, or memory aid, for how to assess a sick child, classify the child's illnesses, assess feeding problems, identify treatment, treat, counsel and give follow-up care according to the IMCI guidelines.
  • IMCI Complementary Course on HIV/AIDS
    • Course on the IMCI consisting of four modules that include topics on technical updates of the IMCI, prevention and treatment of HIV in children and counseling of HIV positive women.
  • Immunobiology
    • Online version of the 5th edition of Immunobiology.
  • Immunology Lab
    • This virtual laboratory will demonstrate how such a test, termed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), is carried out and show some of the key experimental problems that may be encountered.
  • Immunology Lectures
    • Lectures from the University of Michigan’s medical school.
  • Immunology Problem Sets and Tutorials
    • From the University of Arizona this problem set is designed to introduce basic concepts about the immune system.
  • Immunopathology
    • Images of immunologic mechanisms of injury, with patterns of injury and major autoimmune diseases.
  • Impact of the Manager's Span of Control on Leadership and Performance
    • The purpose and objectives of this study are to examine the extent to which the manager's span of control influences nurse, patient, and unit outcomes; and investigate which particular leadership style contributes to optimum nurse, patient, and unit outcomes under differing spans of control.
  • Implementing a Community-Based Tuberculosis Program in the Omaheke Region of Namibia
    • The purpose of this survey was to identify nurses' perceived challenges in implementing a community-based TB program in the Omaheke region of Namibia. The HIV pandemic has increased the number of TB patients and increased nurses' workloads, aggravating the burden of TB as a resurgent disease in this region. In order to implement a successful community-based TB program, the patient-related, access-related and knowledge-related challenges, perceived by the nursese, need to be addressed effectively.
  • Importance of Caregiver-Child Interactions for the Survival & Healthy Development of Young Children
    • This review brings together current theory as well as empirical evidence from an array of disciplines including neurophysiology, psycholinguistics, behavioural embryology and developmental psychology on the importance of caregiver-child relationships for the survival and healthy development of children.
  • Increasing Access to Contraception for Clients with HIV: A Toolkit
    • Response to the demand for in-depth training and performance support materials by trainers, providers, and program managers who want to provide family planning services for their clients with HIV.
  • Infant Feeding and HIV
    • Presentation covering options for infant feedings, global recommendations and counseling for HIV positive mothers about infant feeding.
  • Infection
    • Images of Microbiologic agents and the patterns of disease caused by them.
  • Infection Control Fellows Course
    • The course is designed to give infectious diseases fellows and others basic training in infection control. Lessons on epidemiology and infection control are given by world-renowned faculty from various specialties. The recommended audience includes first- and second-year fellows in infectious diseases training programs, and pulmonary and critical care fellows, residents, and other practitioners interested in healthcare-acquired infections and antimicrobial resistance.
  • Infection Prevention
    • Protect clients, providers and staff from infections and minimize the risk of transmitting serious diseases such as hepatitis B and AIDS. You will find an overview of IP principles and processes as well as how-to information for some key IP processes.
  • Infection Prevention
    • This online course is designed to help health care providers, supervisors of health care facilities, medical students, and nursing students strengthen infection prevention practices in low-resource settings.
  • Inflammation Index
    • Tutorial containing images and quizzes of patterns of cellular and tissue injury with inflammation, including acute, chronic and granulomatous inflammation.
  • Inflammatory Response
    • This learning object describes the inflammatory response - a series of local cellular and vascular responses which are triggered when the body is injured or invaded by micro-organisms or antigen.
  • Information Package on Environmental and Occupational Health
    • A set of four brochures with corresponding poster messages providing a comprehensive and consistent information package in four environmental health areas has just been published. Each brochure provides an overview of the issues, challenges and goals.
  • Injuries and Poisoning
    • Merck manual that contains useful clinical information for health care professionals.
  • Injury Epidemiology
    • An introduction to the field of injury epidemiology. It contains an overview of injuries, their relative importance around the world, and proposed mechanisms for reducing their impact. Persons with little previous experience in epidemiology should start here.
  • Instructions for Inhaler and Spacer Use
    • The diagrams and instructions presented here illustrate the use of various currently available inhaler devices for asthma.
  • Integrated HIV/AIDS Prevention, Treatment and Care
    • The overall objective of this course is to develop knowledge, skills and attitudes of healthcare service providers requisite to the provision of comprehensive care to people living with HIV/AIDS and their families.
  • Integrated Management of Acute Malnutrition
    • This section is intended mainly for practitioners and program managers. It covers management of sever malnutrition, with an in-patient outline based mainly on the WHO standards and updates from Professor Michael Golden, and an out-patient outline based mainly on the Community-based Therapeutic Care Field Manual.
  • Integrated Management of Essential and Emergency Surgical Care
    • This e-learning tool kit is a set of five CD-ROMs that has been developed by the Clinical Procedures Unit for the GIEESC program. This tool targets policy-makers as well as health-care providers. This tool contains WHO recommendations for minimum standards in emergency and essential surgical care in surgery, trauma, obstetrics and anesthesia at first -referral level health-care facilities.
  • Intelligent Data Analysis (IDA)
    • At the end of this module the learner will be able to understand the concept of the IDA; to meet web-sites and literature on IDA; to meet some tools of IDA; and to learn how to use IDA tools and to validate the IDA results.
  • Interactions: Health and Wealth
    • The objectives of this module are to look at the relationship between health and wealth via the Preston Curve, look at possible mechanisms from wealth to health, look at possible mechanisms from health to wealth, and to look at Malaria, TB, and HIV/AIDs effect on economic growth and wealth.
  • Interactive Pathology Laboratory
    • Offers an interactive, case-based approach for learning the concepts of Pathology. The program consists of approximately 100 cases outlining clinical and laboratory findings along with gross photographs and photomicrographs accompanied by descriptive text.
  • Interesting Cases from the Thyroid Cancer Clinic, Austin, TX
    • The site presents case of the month with the surgery pictures and explanations.
  • International Curriculum for Diabetes Health Professional Education
    • The IDF curriculum can be readily adapted to meet the particular needs of local health professionals, institutions and organizations. It can be used to facilitate the training of health professionals from a variety of disciplines and at different levels of diabetes knowledge.
  • International Standards for Tuberculosis Care
    • Describes a widely accepted level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing patients who have, or are suspected of having, tuberculosis. The Standards are intended to facilitate the effective engagement of all care providers in delivering high-quality care.
  • Internet Resources for Special Children (IRSC)
    • Web site with information relating to the needs of special children on a global basis.
  • Intracellular and Extracellular Buffers
    • This RLO outlines the main intracellular and extracellular buffering systems within the body and shows how the carbonic acid buffering system can be assessed.
  • Intramuscular Injection by the Z Track Technique
    • Intramuscular injection by the Z track technique explains and demonstrates a safe technique for administering an intramuscular injection.
  • Intravenous Drugs Used for the Induction of Anesthesia
    • This tutorial reviews the basic pharmacology of common intravenous (IV) anesthetic drugs.
  • Introduction to Applied Statistics
    • This course provides graduate students in the sciences with an intensive introduction to applied statistics. Topics include descriptive statistics, probability, non-parametric methods, estimation methods, hypothesis testing, correlation and linear regression, simulation, and robustness considerations. Calculations will be done using handheld calculators and the Minitab Statistical Computer Software.
  • Introduction to Biological Psychiatry
    • The purpose of this tutorial is to describe cellular and molecular properties of neurons, mechanisms of psychotropic drugs action and biological basis of mental disorders.
  • Introduction to Comparative Health Care Systems
    • The objectives of this module are to define a ‘health system’, identify key goals of health care systems, name the vital functions of health care systems, recognize different methods of financing health care systems, identify three immediate performance measures, and to understand the ‘control knob framework’.
  • Introduction to Cox Regression Pt. 1
    • This module introduces the student to the Cox Regression model.
  • Introduction to Cox Regression Pt. 2
    • This module is a continuation of the first part of the lecture.
  • Introduction to Drug Clearance
    • Provides a definition of clearance and a basic explanation of the processes.
  • Introduction to Human Physiology
    • This online course is one of the primary, core courses for people pursuing careers in nursing, medical technology and allied health occupations.
  • Introduction to Modeling Continuous Longitudinal Data and Repeated Measures ANOVA Pt. 1
    • This module shows examples of continuous longitudinal data.
  • Introduction to Modeling Continuous Longitudinal Data and Repeated Measures ANOVA Pt. 2
    • This module is a continuation of part one of this lecture.
  • Introduction to Survival Analysis Pt. 1
    • At the conclusion of this module the learner will be able to understand what survival analysis is, know terminology and data structure, understand survival/hazard functions, understand parametric versus semi-parametric regression techniques, be introduced to Kaplan-Meier methods (non-parametric), and to understand relevant SAS procedures (PROCS).
  • Introduction to Survival Analysis Pt. 2
    • This module is a continuation of the first part of this lecture.
  • Investigators Responsibilities in Clinical Research
    • PowerPoint presentation covering good clinical practice as well as the role and responsibilities of the principal investigator.
  • Investing in Midwives and Others with Midwifery Skills to Save the Lives of Mothers and Newborns and Improve Their Health
    • This guidance note is designed for countries seeking to scale up midwifery services, especially at the community level. It outlines in detail the action required by policy-makers and program managers to effect change at country level and scale up midwifery capacity, specifically in poor and hard-to-reach areas.
  • Iowa Model of Evidence Based Practice
    • The Iowa Model has several distinct advantages; it provides a guide for clinical decision-making, it provides details regarding implementation of evidence-based practice, and it includes both the practitioner and organizational perspective.
  • IPCRG Guidelines for the Management of Chronic Respiratory Diseases in Primary Care
  • Iron Metabolism and Disorders Tutorial
    • A well-balanced diet contains sufficient iron to meet body requirements. About 10% of the normal 10 to 20 mg of dietary iron is absorbed each day, and this is sufficient to balance the 1 to 2 mg daily losses from desquamation of epithelia.
  • Is the CT Scan at the 24 Hours Important in Children with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury?
    • A presentation on why management protocols must establish a safe and effective standard of care that allows distinction between patients who require observation and those who can be discharged from the emergency department, thus eliminating uncecessary tests and/or hospitalization.
  • IV Push
    • Guide with photos and videos demonstrating the proper technique for administering medicine through an IV.
  • IV to Intermittent Device
    • Guide with photos and videos demonstrating the proper technique.
  • Kaplan-Meier Methods and Parametric Regression Methods Pt. 1
    • This module explains what the Kaplan-Meier method is used for: when there are no censored data, the KM estimator is simple and intuitive; when there are censored data, the KM provides estimate of S(t) that takes censoring into account; and the KM estimator is defined only at times when events occur (empirically defined).
  • Kaplan-Meier Methods and Parametric Regression Methods Pt. 2
    • This module is a continuation of the first part of the lecture.
  • Kidneys and Metals
    • Tutorials and quizzes covering basic anatomy and physiology of the kidneys, properties of metals, and the effect of metals on the kidneys and on kidney cells.
  • Knowledge Hub for Pathology
    • An enormous amount of pathology-based educational materials for your use for free - approximately 50,000 pages, 100's of thousands of up-to-date references, 10's of thousands of illustrations, tables, graphs, and cartoons.
  • Leishmaniasis in Northern and Western Africa: a Review
    • A summarized analysis of the epidemiology, infective species, parasites reservoirs, diagnosis, treatment and control measures of leishmaniasis in northern and western Africa region. In northern Africa, the disease is prevalent in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt and Libya.
  • Lessons Learned in Home Management of Malaria - Implementation Research in Four African Countries
    • This guide focuses in particular on four countries – Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria and Uganda – where country teams have completed community-based studies on HMM, assessing its operational feasibility, acceptability and (in Burkina Faso) impact on severe disease.
  • Levels of Measurement
    • Aimed at statistics beginners, this learning object describes, and gives examples of, the four levels of measurement of data: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio.
  • Live Safe, Play Safe
    • A skills-based health education program that protects children's health by enabling them to avoid HIV infection. The course expands young people's awareness about HIV/AIDS and builds their skills in negotiation, assertiveness, coping with peer pressure, and feeling compassion for those with HIV/AIDS.
  • Lumen Cross Section Tutorial
    • Cross sectional anatomy tutorial from Loyola University in Chicago.
  • LUMEN Dissector
    • Anatomy tutorials with practice quizzes and images.
  • Lung Health Image Library
    • A comprehensive collection of several thousand high and low resolution photographs related to lung health worldwide.
  • Maintaining Chest Tubes
    • A guide with photos on how to manage patients with a chest tube.
  • Maintaining the Body's Chemistry: Dialysis in the Kidneys
    • This site is a tutorial on kidney structure and function. Detailed descriptions of how water and ions are actually moved through the membrane channels are provided. Study questions are provided on membrane channels, diffusion and concentration gradients (including a video on movement of molecules during diffusion), and membranes and concentration gradients within the kidney. The tutorial concludes with a discussion of artificial kidney dialysis.
  • Malaria and HIV: The Impact on Pregnant Women and Infants
    • This report focuses on the impact of malarial and HIV co-infection during pregnancy and infancy and the special considerations related to simultaneous use of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) and anti-malarial therapy and a discussion of the administration of malaria treatment and prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in HIV-infected women and children is included.
  • Malaria in Pregnancy Tutorial
    • This tutorial, which discusses the impact of malaria on the pregnant woman and her newborn and other important issues concerning the prevention and control of malaria in pregnancy.
  • Malaria Prevention, Control and Management
    • This course was designed in order to equip you with the knowledge, skills and right attitudes to fight malaria.
  • Male Genital Tract Pathology
    • The male reproductive system.
  • Management of Sexually Transmitted Infectioins Course: Clinical Photo Reference Guide
    • This guide provides color photographs and flowcharts (algorithms) of each of the major sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related syndromes that health workers often see in their clinical practice. In addition to being useful as a reference during training, this guide can be used in a variety of clinical settings to help make appropriate STI diagnoses and treatment choices.
  • Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections Course
    • This course covers the basic elements of comprehensive sexually transmitted infection (STI) care in a primary health-care setting, based on guidelines from Botswana's Ministry of Health. Topics covered include the syndromic management of STIs and updated treatment protocols, patient-centered care, behavior change counseling and STI/HIV risk reduction. The course also discusses Botswana's national policy for routine HIV testing and how it fits within the context of STI care and treatment.
  • Many Faces of Psychological Research in the 21st Century
    • Edited by Jane Halonen and Stephen Davis, this "e-book" is sponsored by the Society for the Teaching of Psychology. Its thirteen chapters, written by leading scholars, provide a broad overview of what research agenda and approaches this new century calls for across many of psychology’s sub-disciplines.
  • Marasmus
    • This peer-reviewed article explains what Marasmus is, its causes and pathophysiology; it provides advice for taking a patient's clinical history and carrying out a physical examination; it lists other problems that should be considered/eliminated before diagnosis; and provides information about tests that might be carried out, treatment options, medication, follow-up care, complications, and prevention.
  • Maternal Mortality Update 2006 - Expectation and Delivery: Investing in Midwives and Others with Midwifery Skills
    • This document reviews the issues around midwives and others with midwifery skills: who they are, what they do and how to scale up professional attendance at all births. It also includes case studies of midwifery initiatives.
  • Maxillofacial Trauma
    • PowerPoint presentation with clinical cases and images.
  • Measuring Blood Pressure
    • The first section of this tutorial is a video of blood pressure measurement. The remainder of this section allows you to test your accuracy by recording 34 blood pressure values and comparing your results with those obtained by 24 experienced observers.
  • Medical Aspects of Blast Injuries
    • This presentation discusses the epidemiology of blast injuries.
  • Medical Problems in Pregnancy
    • In this section, one commentary reminds readers that in spite of the seriousness of the problem of anaemia in pregnancy, sufficient data are not available to recommend iron therapy for pregnant women. Two reviews reaffirm that magnesium sulfate not only reduces maternal deaths from eclampsia, but also halves the risk of the condition. Another review finds that antioxidants may not help to reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia.
  • MedLine Plus: Ear, Nose and Throat
    • The site contains rich information and resources on the diseases and conditions of ear, nose and throat. It is intended for health care professionals and consumers, and much of the information is specific for the U.S.
  • Men's Reproductive Health Curriculum
    • This three-part curriculum is designed to provide a broad range of health care workers with the skills and sensitivity needed to work with male clients and provide men’s reproductive health services.
  • Meta-Analysis
    • This RLO provides an introduction to the basic concepts of meta-analysis, which is an important and invaluable tool for summarizing data from multiple studies.
  • MetaTextbook of Pediatric Radiology
    • Integrative interface to all the pediatric radiology educational material on the Internet. Just as a meta-analysis is a study that reviews and integrates other studies, this meta-textbook is a textbook that reviews and integrates other textbooks.
  • Microbicides: User-Controlled HIV Prevention
    • The objectives of this module are to explain the need for user-controlled HIV prevention methods, be able to answer “what is a microbicide?”, be able to list and describe the mechanisms of action of potential microbicides, illustrate differences between vaginal and rectal microbicides, and to describe the timeline and challenges for microbicides research and clinical trials.
  • Microfinance and HIV/AIDS: It's Time to Talk
    • This paper includes a discussion of the economic impact of HIV/AIDS on families, how microfinance services can help families increase their income and build their savings, and possible innovations that could maintain the strength of families and microfinance institutions in areas heavily affected by HIV/AIDS.
  • Microfinance, Microcredit and Health
    • The objectives of this module are to describe microfinance and microcredit, describe possible relationship and mechanisms by which microcredit affects health, and explore some examples of successful microcredit initiatives, including the Grameen Bank and the Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA).
  • Midwife’s Abdominal Examination in the Antenatal Period
    • This RLO demonstrates how to perform the midwife’s examination of the abdomen in the antenatal period. It includes video clips of an abdominal examination, and references to professional (NMC) and NICE guidelines where appropriate.
  • Midwifery Education Modules
    • The six modules aim to help skilled practitioners think critically and make effective decisions on the basis of solid knowledge and understanding of these complications. When using the modules for basic midwifery programmes, it is understood that students should already be competent in most of the basic skills such as measuring blood pressure, performing a vaginal examination, conducting a normal delivery and prevention of infection.
  • Modeling Change
    • This module looks at changes in population models.
  • Monitoring and Evaluation
    • This module looks at and describes the process of monitoring and its sister process, evaluation; what is to be done and how to do it. As well as showing the skills needed by mobilizers, it looks at monitoring from a wider perspective, including but not limited to the roles of mobilizers.
  • Myocardial Infarction Tutorial
    • Ischemic heart disease is caused by an imbalance between the myocardial blood flow and the metabolic demand of the myocardium. Reduction in coronary blood flow is related to progressive atherosclerosis with increasing occlusion of coronary arteries.
  • Neonatal and Perinatal Mortality
    • Assortment of publications about making pregnancy safer for mother and child.
  • Nervous System Histology
    • Images of cross sections of nerves and spinal cord histology.
  • NetBiochem Topics
    • This site provides a list of links pertaining to biochemistry.
  • Neuroanatomy
    • This tutorial demonstrates neuroanatomical features of the CNS with labeled images and comparison with MRI scans.
  • Neuroanatomy Through Clinical Cases
    • In this website the main components of the neurologic exam are outlined. The goal will be to demonstrate through streaming video segments how each step of the neurologic exam is performed.
  • Neurological Examination Videos
    • Demonstration and review of neurological examination of cranial nerves - includes video.
  • Neuroscience Tutorials
    • An illustrated guide to the essential basics of clinical neuroscience created in conjunction with the first-year course for medical students.
  • Newborn Health
    • This section includes reviews on maternal and neonatal health, including a full compendium of Cochrane reviews produced by the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group.
  • Normal Anatomy
    • A set of Visible Human Project images demonstrating sectional anatomy of the human body.
  • Number for Nurses
    • The Number for Nurses Computer Assisted Learning Package begins with a basic principles section which is followed by application to nursing practice. The basic principles section deals with addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, S.I. units and scales and gauges. In each area a variety of methods are used to enable the student to understand these principles, through interactive tutorials and consolidate learning through exercises.
  • Numbers Needed to Treat and Numbers Needed to Harm
    • This RLO considers how to measure and interpret the magnitude of effect in clinical trial results using number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH).
  • Nursing Case Studies
    • Portfolio of patient care case studies.
  • Nursing Management Today: an ICN Viewpoint
    • Population-based health care has become the focus of health care services around the world so there is an ever-increasing need to train and support nurse managers who can lead and nurture nurses as they work towards providing optimum levels of satisfaction and safety in the care they give to their patients.
  • Nutrition and HIV/AIDS: A Training Manual for Nurses and Midwives
    • Nurses play a critical role in HIV care, but nursing school curricula often include little or no information on nutrition and HIV. This manual provides materials for teaching nursing students the knowledge and skills needed for nutrition care and support of people living with HIV.
  • Nutrition Course
    • Online nutrition course from Western Governors University.
  • Nutrition: Proteins
    • This unit studies 'proteins'. Starting with a simple analysis of their molecular make up, the unit moves on to look at the importance of proteins and how they are digested and absorbed
  • Nutritional Disorders
    • Merck manual that contains useful clinical information for health care professionals.
  • Obesity
    • Online textbook with chapters dedicated to obesity related topics.
  • Obesity Tutorial
    • At the beginning of the 21st century, for the first time in human history, more of the earth's population suffers from too much food, rather than from lack of food. This has resulted in an increasing number of persons who are obese. This is a problem even amongst children.
  • Obstetrics and the Newborn
    • This course explains the many physiological and psychological changes that a woman may experience throughout her pregnancy, during labor and delivery, and the period after delivery.
  • Occupational Hazards for Women
    • The studies compiled here have been selected from a comprehensive anthology on women which originally concerns water, nutrition and agriculture, housing and shelter, domestic fuel shortage and indoor air pollution. The last section on occupational Hazards is the focus here and only a fraction of the myriad hazards faced by women in their paid and unpaid work is addressed.
  • Occupational Health: a Manual for Primary Health Care Workers
    • The classic approach to ensuring health and safety in the workplace has depended mainly on the enactment of legislation and inspection of workplaces to ensure compliance with health and safety standards. While this approach has been effective in controlling many specific occupational hazards since the Industrial Revolution, it has not been very effective in the past several decades, particularly in developing countries, for several reasons.
  • Oncology Clinical Topics
    • Current reviews of the evidence (integrated and systematic reviews, meta-analysis, and extensive reviews of the literature within the past 5 years) relevant to oncology nursing practice.
  • Online Pediatric Surgery Handbook
    • Topics include head and neck lesions, tumors, obstructive problems, hernias, gastrointestinal bleeding, and pancreatic and biliary disorders.
  • Ophthalmologic Disorders
    • This chapter of the Merck Manual provides useful clinical information on eye injuries and disorders, plus links to related topics in the Manual. The site includes a keyword search engine.
  • Opportunistic Infection Video Cases and Facilitator's Guide
    • This series of videos and accompanying facilitator's guide featuring real cases was filmed at the Government Hospital of Thoracic Medicine at Tambaram Hospital in Chennai, India. Viewers are challenged to assess the on-screen patient history, chief complaint, and physical examination, and to reach conclusions about potential differential diagnoses and appropriate lab investigations. Each case is comprised of 3 parts: the patient's history and chief complaints, a physical exam demonstration, and a description of further testing and investigations.
  • Oral Rehydration Salts
    • This document was prepared to inform national authorities on the position of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and of the World Health Organization (WHO) with respect to issues such as flavouring, colouring, and rice-based ORS. It is based on a document first published in July 1996 that was revised to take into account results of studies on ORS formulation and zinc supplementation.
  • Oral Rehydration Salts: Production of the New ORS
    • This document updates an earlier document and provides information on the manufacture of the new ORS. It has been prepared to assist national authorities in establishing the local manufacture of a product of pharmaceutical quality, in order that they may become self-reliant in meeting the needs of their national diarrhoeal diseases control activities.
  • Organizing and Conducting Focus Groups
    • A focus group is a structured conversation used to obtain in-depth information from a group of people about a particular topic. Focus groups are often used as a planning tool when developing a new program or service, or as a way to get feedback on specific topics. This resource provides users with information on organizing and facilitating a focus group, and contains strategies on how to analyze focus group data.
  • Orphans and Vulnerable Children Due to AIDS in Africa
    • This publication is a literature review about children who have been orphaned or made vulnerable by HIV. It contains a searchable bibliographic database of approximately 400 references and a thematic synthesis of children affected by HIV divided into five chapters.
  • Outbreaks: Identification, Investigation, Management
    • The objectives of this module are to describe the epidemiology of SARS, understand how to approach the investigation and control of a communicable disease outbreak, discuss what public health control measures were used to control SARS, understand the difference between isolation and quarantine, appreciate the ecological and human behavioral factors that contributed to the emergence of SARS, and understand how practicing physicians fit into outbreak recognition and control.
  • P is for Practice
    • Features six case studies developed to allow non-epidemiologists to practice basic epidemiology skills.
  • Paediatric Pharmacology
    • Review of the effects of pharmaceuticals on children.
  • Pain Management in Palliative Care
    • This lecture is designed to provide physicians, pharmacists, nurse practitioners, residents, as well as any medical or allied health professional with advanced information to improve their care of older adults.
  • Palliative Care
    • Series of PowerPoint presentations covering the provision of palliative care to cancer patients.
  • Palliative Care Guidelines
    • The information contained in this ICSI Health Care Guideline is intended primarily for health professionals.
  • Participatory Appraisal
    • In this module the emphasis is on needed skills and techniques, plus a little about the principles that lie behind the methodology.
  • Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation of Community- and Faith-Based Programs: Prototype Version for Field Testing
    • A step-by-step guide for people who want to make HIV and AIDS services and activities more effective in their community. The guide focuses on a learning approach to monitoring and evaluation (M&E) that uses achievements and problems for better decision-making and accountability.
  • Pathology Of Breast Cancer
    • Understanding the histopathologic features of breast cancer has been recognized as a necessary element for appropriate management of breast carcinoma
  • Pediatric Antiretroviral Dosing in Resource-Limted Settings
    • This clinical resource is a pocket guide on antiretroviral drug dosing for children in resource-constrained settings. Current guidelines in the U.S. recommend dosing using surface areas estimations, so this document should be used with caution and checked against other resources. The brochure includes a table detailing dosage recommendations based on weight for 14 drugs or drug combinations, intended for infants and children who weigh between 5 and 40 kg.
  • Pediatric Cancer
    • PowerPoint presentation detailing cancer in children from a global perspective.
  • Pediatric Endocrinology
    • Online textbook with topics including growth disorders, diabetes, and other endocrine disorders in children.
  • Pediatric-Perinatal Pathology
    • Images of diseases of the perinatal period and childhood.
  • Pediatrics
    • Merck manual that contains useful clinical information for health care professionals.
  • Peptic Ulcer Disease - the Impact of Helicobacter Pylori on Management in the Developing World
    • From the monthly review entitled Surgery in Africa. The recognition that PUD was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection caused a sea change in the approach to this disease. Concurrently, very powerful drugs to lower gastric acid secretion and heal ulcers have been developed. A number of very good reviews document the consequences of these developments from a developed world perspective. This Review summarizes these and focus on the impact they have had on the diagnosis and treatment of PUD in the developing world.
  • Perioperative Care Articles
    • Includes topics on perioperative management.
  • Peritonitis and Intra-Abdominal Abscess - Pelvic and Sub-phrenic Eritonitis
    • From the monthly review entitled Surgery in Africa. Review concerning two types of intra-abdominal infections a) peritonitis resulting from extension of infection into the general peritoneal cavity and b) intra-abdominal abscesses.
  • Personal Protective Equipment
    • Examines when and how to use personal protective equipment in a healthcare setting.
  • Personality Theories
    • Electronic textbook in personality theories.
  • Pharmacokinetics
    • Review articles covering the three major processes of pharmacokinetics: absorption, distribution, and elimination.
  • Physiology of the Kidneys
    • Aimed at pre-registration Nursing students studying human biology, this learning object introduces the physiology of the kidney, examining the processes by which the kidneys filter blood, control body pH and eliminate the waste products of metabolism from the body.
  • Pituitary Disease and Neuroendocrinology
    • Online textbook that emphasizes clinical endocrine practice, including the most current information on the manifestations of endocrine disease, diagnosis and treatment.
  • Placental Pathology
    • Pathologic processes involving the placenta and fetus in utero.
  • Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children: Guidelines for the Management of Common Illnesses with Limited Resources
    • This is a pocket-sized manual for use by doctors, senior nurses and other senior health workers who are responsible for the care of young children at the first referral level in developing countries. It presents up-to-date clinical guidelines which are based on a review of the available published evidence by subject experts, for both inpatient and outpatient care in small hospitals where basic laboratory facilities, essential drugs, and inexpensive medicines are available.
  • Population Growth and Population Policy: Is Population a Problem?
    • The objectives of this module are to outline past changes in population growth and future population projections, describe key terms to understand population and demographic studies, describe demographic theoretical models of population change and provide key case studies, describe the impact of population change on: education, health, food and water, economic growth, describe barriers women face in getting family planning, and explain policies that make reproductive choices available to women and men.
  • Positive and Negative Predictive Value of Diagnostic Tests
    • This RLO explains how diagnostic test results are a combination of true and false positive, or true and false negative.
  • Postabortion Care for Adolescents: Results from Research in the Dominican Republic and Malawi
    • A report summarizing two studies conducted by EngenderHealth in the Dominican Republic and Malawi to determine how facilities can better meet adolescents' needs for postabortion care (PAC). Contains results from interviews with adolescents who received PAC services and providers who deliver them. Includes recommendations for improving adolescent PAC services.
  • Post-Abortion Care: A Reference Manual for Improving Quality of Care
    • Reference manual for post-abortion care.
  • Postabortion Women: Factors Influencing Their Family Planning Options
    • Working Paper #9. Describes an informal three-country study to learn more about whether and how women who have had an abortion receive family planning information and services.
  • Postnatal Treatment, Care & Support for Mothers and families with HIV Infection
    • Includes physical assessment, referral for HIV/AIDS treatment, infant-feeding support, family planning and other support services. This module will instruct participants to be able to explain the treatment, care, and support needs of mothers with HIV infection; discuss the treatment and care needs of HIV- exposed infants and children; and speak to the importance of testing partners for HIV.
  • PowerPoint Presentations related to Respiratory Care
    • Topics include COPD, asthma, and global respiratory disease.
  • Practical Guide for Selection of MVA Instruments
    • A useful tool comparing the various manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) instruments on the market, to help providers and those procuring supplies choose the equipment that best suits their needs. Describes the test procedures and standards used to evaluate the instruments, provides an overall comparison of the instruments evaluated, lists the cross-compatibility of equipment from various manufacturers, and provides information about the products and their manufacturers.
  • Prenatal Diagnosis Tutorial
    • Tutorial on a variety of techniques to determine the health and condition of an unborn fetus.
  • Presenting and Interpreting Meta-Analyses
    • How to present and interpret the results of a meta-analysis using forest plots.
  • Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease
    • These pocket guidelines provide evidence-based guidance on how to reduce the incidence of first and recurrent clinical events due to coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) and peripheral vascular disease in two categories of people.
  • Prevention of HIV in Healthcare Facilites
    • Presentation containing strategies to prevent HIV transmission in the health care setting.
  • Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV
    • A comprehensive training course on the prevention of HIV transmission from mother to child developed and presented by Jean Anderson, MD. Topics for this program range from HIV/AIDS preconception to infant feeding, including the use of antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy.
  • Primary Care Respiratory Journal
    • Peer-reviewed, Medline-listed, international academic journal relevant to all those working in primary care world-wide, particularly those with an interest in the primary care management of respiratory and allergic diseases.
  • Primary Ear and Hearing Care
    • This site contains links to four WHO training manuals to enable primary level health workers reduce the burden of ear disease and hearing disorders.
  • Priming an IV
    • Video demonstration of how to clear an IV tubing of air.
  • Problem-Based Learning
    • This module helps to define problem-based learning which is an instructional student-centered approach which uses carefully constructed clinical problems as a context for students to define their learning needs, conduct self-directed enquiry, integrate theory and practice, and apply knowledge and skills to develop a solution to a defined problem.
  • Procedure Manuals
    • Manuals for preparation and performance of routine and special stains, and manuals for laboratory safety.
  • Professional Issues in Nursing
    • This is the first nursing course in the RN-BS Online Program. It is an intermediate seminar designed to assist registered nurses to develop the critical reading, thinking and writing skills necessary for successful university level study. Issues that significantly influence professional practice and nursing leadership are explored utilizing the above skills.
  • Programme Guidance on Counselling for STI/HIV Prevention in Sexual and Reproductive Health Settings
    • This guide aims to provide information, ideas and suggestions for those who work with clients (young people, male and female clients, individuals and couples) and who want to improve their knowledge and skills in counseling in STI/HIV prevention, safer sex, pre and post HIV antibody testing and other issues related to the subject.
  • Promoting Healthy Lifestyles in the Developing World
    • The objectives of this module are to understand health promotion in context: the developing world, understand the determinants of health related with life styles in developing countries, understand the strategy of empowerment and the importance of environment and social factors.
  • Prostate Pathology Tutorial
    • The male prostate gland is located below the bladder. The seminal vesicles are located posterior to the prostate. The urethra exits from the bladder and traverses the prostate before exiting to the penile urethra.
  • Protecting Healthcare Workers: Preventing Needlestick Injuries Toolkit
    • Contains training materials fact sheets, guidelines.
  • Protection of Human Research Subjects
    • CITI program site provides a comprehensive selection of educational modules that can be used to satisfy institutional instructional mandates in The Protection of Human Research Subjects.
  • Psych Lab Online
    • Consists of two sets of programs designed to enable the student to explore classic experiments in psychology.
  • Psychiatry Video Links
    • Videos from psychiatry lectures given at Yale University.
  • Psychopharmacology for the Non-Physician
    • Lecture for upper division psychology students regarding basic elements of psychopharmacology.
  • Publishing Clinical Trial Results
    • An overview of how to publish the results of clinical trials.
  • Pulmonary Case Studies
    • Includes case studies on TB, pulmonary embolism, strep pneumonia, and many more.
  • Pulmonary Pathology
    • The respiratory tract, including lungs and pleura.
  • Qualitative Interviews
    • This guide describes qualitative interviewing, and gives specific recommendations on how to perform them. While in a survey the quality of the questionaire determines the quality of the data collected, with a qualitative interview the skill of the interviewer is paramount. This document defines the differences between structured, unstructured and semi-structured interviews and gives techniques for eliciting information.
  • Quality Information in Field Research
    • Training manual on practical communication skills for field researchers and project personnel.
  • Quote TB
    • Standardized tool for patient interviews, which capture patient perspectives and which can be used by National TB Program staff to improve the quality of TB services and stay accountable to TB patients.
  • Referencing Books Using Harvard
    • This resource outlines the information that is required to accurately reference a book for the Harvard referencing scheme. It also outlines where that information can be found within a book.
  • Referencing Journals Using Harvard
    • This resource outlines the information that is required to accurately reference a journal article for the Harvard referencing scheme. It also outlines where that information can be found within a printed journal.
  • Referencing Websites Using Harvard
    • This resource outlines the information that is required to accurately reference a website for the Harvard referencing scheme. It also outlines where that information can be found within a website.
  • Referencing Your Work with Harvard
    • Introduction to the Harvard style of literature referencing, incorporating an interactive referencing tool for students.
  • Renal Cystic Disease Tutorial
    • This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, giving a 25% recurrence risk for parents having subsequent children. The kidneys are affected bilaterally, so that in utero, there is typically oligohydramnios because of poor renal function and failure to form significant amounts of fetal urine.
  • Renal Lectures
    • Lectures from the University of Michigan’s medical school.
  • Renal Pathology
    • The kidney
  • Reproductive Health Manual for Trainers of Community Health Workers
    • This manual was developed to help organizations who provide reproductive health services through the community-based distribution approach to train their community health workers in reproductive health.
  • Reproductive Health Outlook: Cervical Cancer Prevention
    • This is the pdf version of the WHO’s guide to cervical cancer. It is a large file that contains comprehensive coverage of recommended guidelines and practices.
  • Reproductive Health Part 1: Introduction to Reproductive Health and Safe Motherhood
    • The objectives of this module are to identify the leading indicators and program components of reproductive health, describe disparities in reproductive health outcomes between countries and regions of the world, discuss major challenges to improving reproductive health, and describe effective interventions to improve reproductive health.
  • Reproductive Health Part 2: Family Planning, Unsafe Abortion, STIs, and Gender-Based Violence
    • The objectives of this module are to identify differences in access to and use of family planning between regions of the world, discuss relationships between access to contraception, unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions in regions of the world, describe the global burden of disease represented by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDs and regional disparities is disease prevalence, and to discuss the violations of human rights represented by behaviors and practices that discriminate against individuals or groups based on gender.
  • Reproductive Health Training for Primary Providers
    • This modular training resource intended to help trainers integrate aspects of reproductive health (RH) into training curricula. The SourceBook is based on the principles of performance-based training.
  • Retroviruses
    • Online textbook divided into two parts. The first deals primarily with viral structure, function and replication; the second with the interplay between the virus and the host, focusing primarily on the effects of the virus on the host.
  • Review of IV Fluids
    • A review of different types of IV fluids and how they function in the body.
  • Review of One-Way ANOVA
    • This module defines ANOVA as a method to compare means between more than two groups.
  • Reviewing a Published Paper
    • By doing this exercise, you will understand how the various elements in a paper work to communicate the authors' intentions, methods and results. In addition, you will also benefit from the guidance of an experienced reviewer, who will show you how to assess a paper's worth and give you the confidence to be a more discerning reader.
  • Routine HIV Testing and Counseling for PMTCT
    • This module is designed to provide health care workers with the basic knowledge and introductory skills to conduct routine HIV testing and counseling in Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) care settings.
  • Sampling Frames and Study Types: Studies on Life Events
    • At the end of this lecture, students will be in a position to identify appropriate study types for examining various life events on the basis of knowledge of the purpose of the study, availability of data and other non-technical limitations.
  • Screening for Tuberculosis in Individuals with HIV Infection: A Clinical Guide for Care Providers in Resource-Limited Settings
    • This manual provides a short questionnaire and recommendations for TB screening among people living with HIV.
  • Screening Physical Exams
    • Contains guidelines and instruction on conducting various physical exams including abdomen, cardiac, skin, etc.
  • Selected Pediatric Rashes
    • PowerPoint presentation with clinical cases and images.
  • Sensitive Female Pelvic Exam Demonstration Video
    • Shot on location in Botswana, this video provides a detailed, step-by-step, sensitive demonstration of a pelvic exam performed by a local doctor. The doctor describes each action in English, highlighting her examination of the skin, abdomen, and the anal and genital regions. Additionally, she demonstrates speculum insertion and use, an inguinal exam, and how to assess uterine tenderness. Throughout the video, the doctor models careful attention to patient comfort. This video is intended as a tool for instructing clinicians and students on a thorough and patient-sensitive pelvic exam.
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
    • This RLO explains how diagnostic test accuracy is described by the terms sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity describes the accuracy of the test in detecting disease. Specificity describes the accuracy of the test in detecting health.
  • Serious Bacterial Infections in Children with HIV
    • Provides information on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of common bacterial infections in HIV-infected children. It covers several clinical syndromes including pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis, gastroenteritis, urinary tract infection, sepsis, sinusitis, cellulitis, skin and soft tissue infections and bone and joint infections.
  • Serious Childhood Problems in Countries with Limited Resources
    • This book is aimed at medical, nursing and other health-care students, and presents a summary of the technical background and the evidence-base underlying the clinical guidelines presented in the companion manual Management of the Child with a Serious Infection or Severe Malnutrition: Guidelines for Care at the First-Referral Level in Developing Countries, which should be consulted for treatment recommendations.
  • Sexual and Reproductive Health for HIV-Positive Women and Adolescent Girls: A Manual for Trainers and Programme
    • This manual provides information and a structure for a four-day training and a two-day planning workshop that will enable program managers and health workers to provide comprehensive, nonjudgmental, and high-quality SRH care and support to HIV-positive women and adolescent girls. The manual is designed for a local context with limited resources and is available in PDF format in English, French, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish.
  • Sexual Health: An Adolescent Provider Toolkit
    • A collection of tools and resources for adolescent health care providers. The toolkit provides assessment and counseling tools for providers on taking sexual histories, screening for STDs, and providing HIV and pregnancy test counseling. It also contains health education materials which providers can distribute to teens and their adult caregivers.
  • Sexually Transmitted and Other Reproductive Tract Infections: A Guide for Essential Practice
    • This guide is intended to be a reference manual and a resource to educate and remind health-care workers of the need to consider sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in providing other sexual and reproductive health services.
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases - Bacterial
    • This site provides a basic lecture on sexually transmitted diseases of bacterial origin.
  • Shoulder Palpation Tutorial
    • This is a tutorial site providing interactive bony and soft tissue shoulder palpation, descriptive text, and a remediation quiz.
  • SI Units and Calculating Unit Changes
    • To identify what SI units are, when they are used, and how to calculate unit changes.
  • Simple Guide to Orthopedics
    • This illustrated e-book covers examination techniques, neuropathies, bone tumours, polio, paralysis, osteomyelitis, arthritis, and pathological fractures.
  • Small Clinical Trials: Issues and Challenges
    • This report is organized around the two major issues in the performance of any clinical trial: design and analysis.
  • Social Psychology
    • This is a good website with lots of links for anyone doing research or interested in knowing more about social psychology. I think it's a good reference for any social psychology class. It has many links that are organized into helpful categories.
  • Solutions and Electrolytes
    • Examining the mechanisms of chemical solution and how solvents work, and the roles of ions and electrolytes in chemical activity within the body.
  • Speak for the Child: Case Study - Kenya
    • This is a case study of a pilot community-based orphan care and support project in western Kenya, including a description of the project activities, lessons learned, and processes and tools developed in the project. The study also includes a set of suggestions about how those processes and tools might be adapted by other groups.
  • Special Stains in Histology
    • This tutorial describes the nature and usages of a variety of histopathological staining techniques to assist in tissue diagnosis, along with representative images of selected stains.
  • Special Stains Manual
    • This manual, in its printed version, is the main reference source used by the technical staff and personnel of the Department. Many of the methods were developed in our laboratory and have been published in various scientific journals.
  • Specimen Collection
    • PowerPoint presentation on properly obtaining specimens for microbiological evaluation.
  • Starting IVs
    • Instructions on how to start IVs and includes two accompanying demonstration videos.
  • STI/HIV Training Course for 100% Condom Use Programme
    • The training package is aimed at helping programme managers and technical staff to implement the 100% condom use programme. The strategy advocated by this training package is based on second public health thinking, an experience to date with this programme has demonstrated its ability to contribute to a remarkable decline in STI/HIV rates among female sex workers.
  • Stitching a Cut
    • Case study of proper procedure when stitching a cut.
  • Study Designs in Epidemiology
    • This module looks at epidemiological research, classification of designs, qualitative and quantitative methods, and choice of design.
  • Study Management Pt. 1
    • The purpose of this module is to learn how to conduct a study properly.
  • Study Management Pt. 2
    • This module covers the interviewing process in a study.
  • Study Planning and Design to Enhance Translation of Health Behavior Research
    • At the conclusion of this module the learner will be able to understand the need to design health promotion studies to enhance their generalizability and potential for translation to practice-based settings, to understand the elements of an evaluation and study planning framework, and to become familiar with methods to design health behavior change intervention studies to enhance their translation to practice settings.
  • Suctioning
    • Guide with photos and videos demonstrating the proper, sterile techniques.
  • Surgery and Global Health
    • The objectives of this module are to learn what are the major surgical conditions globally and how big a problem they are, to learn how costly surgery is and are there cost-effective strategies to teach these surgical conditions, and to learn what the obstacles are to surgical care in low-income countries and how can these obstacles be overcome.
  • Surgical Treatment: Evidence Based and Problem Oriented
    • This volume was designed to supplement rather than replace standard textbooks. It includes topics on hepatic, spleen, bowel, etc.
  • Surgical Videos
    • Videos include thoracic, abdominal, pelvic and, head and surgeries.
  • Surveillance
    • At the conclusion of this module the learner will be able to understand descriptive epidemiology of health problems, find links to services, find links to research, evaluate interventions, provide projections and planners, and to understand the education and policy.
  • Symposium on Sharing of Best Practice in Orphans and Vulernable Children Programming Workshop Report November 2004
    • The symposium was co-convened by the Orphans and Vulnerable Children Working Group and the UK Department for International Development. The aim of this symposium was to share experiences and program approaches among practitioners working with orphans and children made vulnerable by HIV and AIDS. There were presentations to highlight lessons learned and best practices related to the five approaches identified in 'The Framework for the Protection of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Living in a World with HIV and AIDS.' The presentations facilitated discussion and assisted with identifying approaches, which can be scaled up and replicated.
  • TDR Image Library
    • This site contains over 12,000 tropical disease images.
  • Textbook in Medical Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • This e-book is intended for medical students. It contains sections on cellular physiology, nervous system, circulatory system, respiratory system, metabolism and gastrointestinal functions, kidneys and body fluids and the endocrine glands.
  • Textbook of AIDS Pathology
    • The textbook includes a general discussion of the pathophysiology of HIV infection, organ system pathology of AIDS, and descriptions of the opportunistic infections and neoplasms associated with AIDS, and a general discussion of issues, including safety and education, related to the AIDS epidemic.
  • The Beneficial Effects of Long-Chain, Polyunsaturated n-3 Fish Oil Fatty Acids on the Cardiovascular System
    • Supercourse presentation on the effects of n-3 fatty acids on the cardiovascular system.
  • The Brain from Top to Bottom
    • Interactive tutorial with topics covering neuroanatomy, neurological development, emotions, memory, sleep and many others.
  • The Causes of Violence and the Effects of Violence on Community and Individual Health
    • The objectives of this module are to understand violence from a Public Health perspective, understand the global impact of violence, gain an awareness of types of violence and consequences on health, and to understand the epidemiology of and trends in violence.
  • The Columbia Clinical Manual: Diagnosis and Management of HIV-Related Tuberculosis
    • Outlines a step-by-step approach to the care of HIV-infected adults and children in resource-limited settings, emphasizing multidisciplinary, family-focused care.
  • The Impact of Primary Care on Population Health
    • This lecture summarizes Professor Leiyu Shi's recent work on primary care, the definition of primary care, and his research rationale and framework. It includes a close look at international primary care studies, US primary care studies, Metropolitan Statistical Area analyses, county-level studies, multi-level studies, meta-analyses, and US health center studies.
  • The Institutional Review Board/the Ethics Committee
    • An overview of the institutional review board and ethics committee.
  • The Kidney Atlas
    • Five volume online reference book with topics covering diseases of water, electrolytes, acid base balance, regulation, acute renal failure, and renal disease.
  • The Life of a Midwife: Backgrounds of CNMs/CMs Rich in Diversity
    • A career in midwifery offers an individual diversity and independence in practice and attracts prospective students from all walks of life. America's certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) and certifed midwives (CMs) are former elementary school teachers, writers, missionaries, general practice nurses, etc.
  • The Modeling of Science. Factors that Influence Science. Pt. 1
    • This module covers the concept of personal knowledge in a research study.
  • The Modeling of Science. Factors that Influence Science. Pt. 2
    • This module covers the role of government in research studies.
  • The Mother-Friendly Childbirth Initiative
    • The Coalition for Improving Maternity Services (CIMS) is a coalition of individuals and national organizations with concern for the care and wellbeing of mothers, babies, and families. Our mission is to promote a wellness model of maternity care that will improve birth outcomes and substantially reduce costs. This evidence-based mother-, baby-, and family-friendly model focuses on prevention and wellness as the alternatives to high-cost screening, diagnosis, and treatment programs.
  • The Newborn Examination: Part I.
    • An article detailing newborn examination.
  • The Newborn Examination: Part II
    • An article that reviews anomalies and disorders of the abdomen, pelvis, extremities, genitalia and spine.
  • The Physiology of the Senses
    • A set of 12 web tutorials explaining the biology of human senses. These topics include: the eye, the visual cortex, visual perception of objects, visual perception of motiion, association cortex, streams for visually guided actions, touch, muscle sense, hearing, balance, eye movements, and memory. The activities include introduction to the anatomy related to the topics, animations of physiological actions, and some interactive exercises testing the knowledge of the content.
  • The Practitioner's Handbook
    • Designed to assist practitioners in primary health care, family medicine, emergency medicine and other specialties in the optimal management of patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their partners.
  • The Psychiatric Review of Symptoms: A Screening Tool for Family Physicians
    • Journal article reviewing the use of a screening tool to detect the major psychiatric disorders: depression, personality disorders, substance abuse disorders, anxiety disorders, somatization disorder, eating disorders, cognitive disorders and psychotic disorders.
  • The Rights of Children and Youth Infected and Affected by HIV/AIDS: Trainers' Handbook
    • This stand alone 3 1/2 hour workshop looks at key health rights of children and youth infected and affected by HIV/AIDS, and strategies that can be used to protect those rights. It contains resources on raising awareness around youth's health rights; identifying problems and abuses of rights; and strategies to assist children and youth to access health rights.
  • Tobacco and Health Supercourse
    • Topics include smoking in health, adolescent smoking, and smoking cessation programs.
  • Traditional Medicine
    • The objectives of this module are to articulate definitions of traditional medicine (TM), enumerate the level of global use of TM, discuss reasons for the popularity of TM, articulate a classification of TM, discuss safety, efficacy and quality issues, discuss policy and regulatory framework issues, discuss some case studies on the use of TM, discuss possible future developments.
  • Trainers Guide for Baseline Surveys and Regular Monitoring
    • This manual is for community health program managers, field supervisors, and others who need to monitor and evaluate their programs. The manual will aid them to train others in a simple and rapid method, called Lot Quality Assurance Sampling, for collecting data to use for monitoring and evaluation of community health programs.
  • Training and Use of Allied Health Personnel: a Vital Component of the Health Workforce
    • The objectives of this module are to describe shortages and imbalances in the healthcare workforce and the related causes and effects, define allied health personnel, describe the reliance and need for allied-health personnel in developing countries, describe at least two important issues related to training allied health personnel in order to help overcome the workforce shortages and imbalances, and to describe at least two possible solutions to the imbalances in the healthcare workforce.
  • Training Modules for the Syndromic Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections
    • Intended to build capacity in first-level health facilities, this document provides training on syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections. The training includes information on patient education (about the infection, how STIs are transmitted, risky sexual behavior and how to reduce risk), partner management and the provision of condoms.
  • Trauma Handbook
    • An online version of the trauma handbook for the University of Liverpool.
  • Treatment
    • Any chemical, biological of physical treatment of raw water. Click on Case Studies or Tools to find relevant material for a specific stage.
  • Treatment of HIV-infected Children in Resource Limited Countries
    • In this lecture at San Francisco General Hospital, Dr. Musoke discusses epidemiology and natural history, opportunistic infection prophylaxis, immunization, antiretroviral therapy guidelines, and successes as well as challenges of implementing HAART in resource-limited settings. Her presentation focuses in part on pediatric HAART in Uganda.
  • Tuberculosis Tutorial
    • Contains information on patterns of infection, microscopic findings, and skin testing.
  • Urinary Tract Infections in Infants and Children in Developing Countries in the Context of IMCI
    • This discussion paper reviews the epidemiology, aetiology and risk factors in developing countries. UTI are not included in the generic Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) algorithm. It reviews useful features of UTI and makes suggestions on possibilities for UTI identification and management in first-level health facilities in the context of IMCI, while indicating difficulties.
  • Uses of Demography
    • This module looks at changes in population models.
  • Utilization of Nursing Research in Advanced Practice
    • The primary goal of this course is to promote an evidence-based approach to advanced nursing practice. Evidenced-based research findings for nursing practice will be evaluated in terms of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic relevance. An understanding of the research process, applicable theories, organizational dynamics, and leadership functions are applied to design and process of implementing research in health care settings.
  • Vaccine-Preventable Diseases and Immunization Programs
    • The objectives of this module are to describe vaccine-preventable diseases, understand major vaccines recommended in developing countries, describe other available vaccines and candidate vaccines, and to describe challenges for national immunization programs in developing countries.
  • Validation of Predictive Regression Models
    • At the end of this module, the person should be able to know about common types of regression models, understand fundamental assumptions of regression models, understand performance criteria of predictive models, and to understand the principals of different types of validation.
  • Virtual Autopsy
    • Easy-to-use site with 18 autopsy cases created as part of a medical informatics module. Each case provides H&P, links to pertinent test/lab results, brief report of patient's care until death, and interactive cadaver which organizes color photographs of body tissues/organs and a brief synopsis of results by body system. Each case also allows the user to select from possible causes of death and provides feedback on incorrect/correct choices. The site also contains case-relevant A&P mini-tutorials by body system.
  • Visual Impairment
    • The objectives of this module are to briefly review normal eye anatomy, to be able to define and appreciate the magnitude of visual impairment, to understand why visual impairment is an important global health issue, to be able to describe the major causes of visual impairment worldwide, including background, epidemiology and management, and to present some of the public health efforts to improve eye health worldwide.
  • Volume of Distribution
    • Explains the pharmacological concept of Vd, and how it is calculated.
  • Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries
    • The objectives of this module are to describe epidemiology, public policy, and public health significance of potable water supply and sanitation infrastructure, categorize water-related diseases and environmental associations, define attributes of water quality indicators, review microbiological potability testing techniques, and to discuss successful technology interventions and pitfalls.
  • Where There is No Dentist (Hesperian)
    • Community health workers, educators and individuals from around the world use Where There Is No Dentist to help people care for their teeth and gums. This book's broad focus makes it an invaluable resource.
  • Where There is No Doctor (Hesperian)
    • The manual provides practical, easily understood information on how to diagnose, treat, and prevent common diseases. Special attention is focused on nutrition, infection and disease prevention, and diagnostic techniques as primary ways to prevent and treat health problems.
  • Where There Is No Doctor: First Aid
    • This handbook has been written primarily for those who live far from medical centers, in places where there is no doctor. But even where there are doctors, people can and should take the lead in their own health care. So this book is for everyone who cares. This chapter deals with how to treat certain illnesses and injuries.
  • WHO Report on Global Surveillance of Epidemic-Prone Infectuous Diseases - Dengue and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever
    • The chapter on dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever contains a background of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever including a brief history, a short description of the transmission process, clinical features, and number of cases reported to WHO and countries reporting, 1955-1998.
  • World Gastroenterology Organization Global Guidelines
    • Practice guidelines written from a viewpoint of global applicability, which go through a rigorous process of authoring, editing and peer review and are as evidence-based as possible. Also includes a graded evidence section which supports the guidelines with systematic reviews, clinical trials, meta-analyses and consensus statements.
  • World LINKAGES / Zambia
    • This website describes the LINKAGES work in Zambia on breastfeeding and HIV+ mothers in Zambia.
  • Zoonoses Vector Borne Diseases
    • The objectives of this module are to discuss the different types of zoonoses: rabies (viral, transmitted via bite or scratch), Japanese encephalitis (viral, transmitted via mosquito bite), arenavirus (viral, transmitted by aerosolized rodent body fluids), and Salmonella (bacterial, transmitted by contamination of food products or direct contact with animal host).