Format: Web Site (Partial)

This Religious Studies Portal highlights religions, philosophies, worldviews and traditions from around the world and throughout time.
  • 1662 Book of Common Prayer
    • Used by the Church of England, of the Anglican Communion.
  • 1994 to 2010: The Rise in Islamophobia: Hate Speech & Violence Against Muslims
    • Articles on attacks against Islam and Muslims.
  • A Christmas Carol
    • A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens. The story tells of the stingy Ebenezer Scrooge and his ethical and emotional transformation after the supernatural visitations of Jacob Marley and the Ghosts of Christmases Past, Present, and Future.
  • A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom
    • by Andrew Dickson White, copyright 1896. This text describes the relationships between science and theology and their effects on society.
  • A Napa Christchild
    • The Project Gutenberg EBook of A Napa Christchild; and Benicia's Letters, by Charles A. Gunnison. Christmas tales.
  • A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust
    • An overview of the people and events of the Holocaust through photographs, documents, art, music, movies, and literature
  • Aboriginal Art and Artists
    • Discusses the history of Australian Aboriginal art and the variety of formats that have been produced throughout the centuries. Includes biographies of Aboriginal artists, descriptions of traditional and rock art styles, and treatises on art and Aboriginal society and contemporary Aboriginal art.
  • Aboriginal Art: Land and Cultures
    • Topics include: Art, Land and the Dreaming; Traditional Symbols; Contemporary Aboriginal culture and society; Aboriginal languages; Aboriginal music; and the Prehistory of Australia.
  • Aboriginal Art: Methods and Materials
    • Covers a variety of traditional and contemporary methods used in the creation of Aboriginal art works. Includes discussions on types of paint and paper and the creation of contemporary prints.
  • Aboriginal Art: Regions and Communities
    • Discusses the main regions of Australia where Aboriginal artists have lived and are currently working, and describes the variations in style, symbols and materials used in the production of art in different regions of Australia.
  • About Jehovah's Witnesses (WTS)
    • Jehovah's Witnesses are a Christian denomination that is distinct from mainstream Christianity, best known for their door-to-door evangelism.
  • About the Church of Scientology
    • The Scientology religion is an expanding new religion, founded by American L. Ron Hubbard. The word Scientology means the study of knowledge or truth and addresses the rehabilitation and salvation of the human spirit.
  • Absurdities of the Bible
    • Clarence Darrow describes why he is agnostic.
  • African American Christianity, Pt. I: To the Civil War
    • By Laurie Maffly-Kipp. A history of the religions that enslaved Africans brought with them to American and the evolution of their beliefs over time.
  • African American Christianity, Pt. II: From the Civil War to the Great Migration, 1865-1920
    • By Laurie Maffly-Kipp. When the Civil War finally brought freedom to previously enslaved peoples, the task of organizing religious communities was only one element of the larger need to create new lives—to reunite families, to find jobs, and to figure out what it would mean to live in the United States as citizens rather than property.
  • Agnostics and Agnosticism: Uncertainty About Whether God Exists
    • Topics include: history, definitions, quotations, and famous agnostics
  • Ahead of the Trend
    • Welcome to "Ahead of the Trend," a column bringing you the latest news in religion research from throughout the world. This will be a collegial effort, enlisting the cooperation of researchers, universities, journal editors, institutes and associations of scholars to increase the impact and awareness of important findings in religion research.
  • All Major Groups and Religious Movements List
    • comparative articles from a mainstream Christian perspective
  • Amish
    • Encyclopedia of Selected Peaceful Societies
  • An Introduction to Buddhism
    • Introductory materials on Buddhism, including the sutras, meditations, history, prayers, and basic teachings.
  • An Overview of the Persecution of Jews for the Past 2,000 Years
    • Topics include Anti-Judaism and Anti-Semitism
  • Ancestors in Africa
    • An anthropological case study of how ancestors are treated and attitudes toward the dead by the Mambila people of Africa.
  • Ancient Egypt
    • Information on many aspects of ancient Egyptian life.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses
    • This website offers information about the fifty most important gods and goddesses and provides starting points for further research.
  • Apocrypha
    • Here are the ancient New Testament Apocrypha with translations and commentary. The Apocrypha are documents that were not accepted into the canon of the New Testament by the orthodox church. The New Testament Apocrypha are those writings that were written by ancient Christians that were not accepted into the New Testament, while the Old Testament Apocrypha consist of Jewish documents that were not accepted into the Old Testament. The Old Testament Apocrypha can be found on the Noncanonical Homepage. Here are the New Testament Apocrypha that are presented on the Early Christian Writings web site.
  • Apocrypha
    • The scope of this article takes in those compositions which profess to have been written either by Biblical personages or men in intimate relations with them. Such known works as the Shepherd of Hermas, the Epistle of Barnabas, the Didache (Teaching) of the Twelve Apostles, and the Apostolic Canons and Constitutions, though formerly apocryphal, really belong to patristic literature, and are considered independently.
  • Approaching Religion
    • Approaching Religion is an academic open access journal published by the Donner Institute for Research in Religious and Cultural History in Abo, Finland. Its purpose is to publish current research on religion and to offer a platform for scholarly co-operation and debate within the field.
  • Archaeology and the Bible
    • Christian answers and viewpoints on various questions such as whether the Bible is historically accurate, if archaeology verifies the Bible, etc.
  • Are My Beliefs Welcome in Unitarian Universalism?
    • Unitarian Universalism welcomes people with different beliefs and there is rich dialogue in their congregations about spiritual issues. This page lists answers to questions about spirtual practice, existence of a higher power, life and death, inspiration, and sacred texts.
  • Arguments Against Atheism (and Refutations)
    • In this section, some of the commonly levelled accusations against atheism are considered, and counter-arguments provided.
  • Arguments for the Existence of God (and Refutations)
    • Some of the major philosophical arguments for the existence of a god, including the ontological, cosmological, and teleological arguments, intelligent design, the moral argument, the arguments from justice, religious experience, miracles, common consent, scripture, ignorance, reward, consciousness, and Pascal's Wager.
  • Art in the Christian Tradition Database
    • The Art in the Christian Tradition (ACT) database is a freely available, regularly updated visual image internet resource. Designed for scholars, students, pastors, and religious educators, all of the images may be used for educational and/or religious non-profit purposes. Images are added regularly.
  • Art of the Islamic World
    • This course serves as an introduction to the pre-modern Islamic artistic traditions of the Mediterranean, Near East, and Central and South Asia. This course is organized around the major dynasties under which Islamic art and architecture were produced.
  • Articles on Vegetarianism
    • Compiled From Several Issues of the Jain Study Circular
  • Atheism: Belief in no God, or no belief in God. (There is a difference)
    • Definitions of atheism, articles on how atheists and non-atheists view atheism, personal stories by atheists, and atheism symbols
  • Atonement
    • The Atonement is a controversial topic. Theologians have held very different views on it. Some have commented about classical theories of the atonement with in rather vitriolic language.
  • Baptism
    • What is baptism and is it necessary for salvation? Why should we get baptized and what is the right way? These and other questions are addressed in this section. Find out what baptism is and is not.
  • Baptism as practiced by the early and present-day Church
    • Most Christian faith groups agree that baptism is the method by which an individual is welcomed into the church. But denominations disagree on the precise significance of the act, and the age when baptisms are done.
  • Beachy Amish Mennonites Doctrine & Beliefs
    • The Beachy Amish Mennonites are an evangelical, fundamentalist Christian group with an Anabaptist heritage and a conservative practice.
  • Beyond Good and Evil
    • Prelude to a Future Philosophy by Friedrich Nietzsche; Translated by Ian Johnston. Nietzsche accuses past philosophers of lacking critical sense and blindly accepting Christian premises in their consideration of morality.
  • Bhajans
    • Listen to Bhajans, Kiirtans. Read Bhajans, Kiirtans Scripts.
  • Bible and Theology Answers
    • Christian answers and viewpoints on apologetics questions like the existance of God, definition of the Trinity, dinosaurs, etc.
  • Bible Commentary
    • This page indexes fifteen Biblical commentaries, all believed to be in the public domain in the US due to publication prior to 1923. All of the Bible references in these files are linked into the King James Version of the Bible at this site.
  • Bible Difficulties: Genesis - Deuteronomy
    • Questions related to Genesis through Deuteronomy
  • Bible Difficulties: Hebrews - Revelations
    • Bible difficulties, or apparent Bible contradictions, exist. The opponents of Christianity often use them in their attempts to discredit Christianity. Sometimes these attacks undermine the faith of Christians who either don't understand the issues or don't have the resources to deal with them.
  • Bible Difficulties: Isaiah - Malachi
    • Bible difficulties, or apparent Bible contradictions, exist. The opponents of Christianity often use them in their attempts to discredit Christianity. Sometimes these attacks undermine the faith of Christians who either don't understand the issues or don't have the resources to deal with them.
  • Bible Difficulties: Job - Solomon
    • Questions related to Job through the Songs of Solomon
  • Bible Difficulties: Joshua - Esther
    • Questions related to Joshua through Esther
  • Bible Difficulties: Luke - Acts
    • Bible difficulties, or apparent Bible contradictions, exist. The opponents of Christianity often use them in their attempts to discredit Christianity. Sometimes these attacks undermine the faith of Christians who either don't understand the issues or don't have the resources to deal with them.
  • Bible Difficulties: Matthew - Mark
    • Bible difficulties, or apparent Bible contradictions, exist. The opponents of Christianity often use them in their attempts to discredit Christianity. Sometimes these attacks undermine the faith of Christians who either don't understand the issues or don't have the resources to deal with them.
  • Bible Difficulties: Romans - Philemon
    • Bible difficulties, or apparent Bible contradictions, exist. The opponents of Christianity often use them in their attempts to discredit Christianity. Sometimes these attacks undermine the faith of Christians who either don't understand the issues or don't have the resources to deal with them.
  • Bible for Children
    • A collection of 60 Bible stories for children in English. Stories are written in easy-to-understand language complete with illustrations and available in several formats, including PDF and PowerPoint.
  • Bible Information
    • Articles on the Bible from a Reformed perspective including Canonicity
  • Bible Maps
    • published in 1888 by the American Bible Society
  • Bible Resource Center
    • Official website of the American Bible Society posts basic introductions to the books of the Bible, New Testament, Gospels & Acts, study guides to individual books & a A Concise History of the English Bible.
  • Bible's authors
    • Did the Holy Spirit inspire the Bible's authors?
  • Biblia para Niños
    • Biblia Para Niños existe para hacer que Jesucristo sea conocido a los niños por distribuir historias Bíblicas ilustradas en diferentes formas y medios, incluyendo la Web, Teléfono Celular/PDAs, folletos impresos en color y libros para colorear, en cada idioma que pueda hablar un niño.
  • Biblica
    • Published since 1920 by the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome, Biblica is a research journal and appears four times a year. It is dedicated to biblical studies on the Old and New Testament, and intertestamentary literature, and covers fields of research, such as exegesis, philology, and history.
  • Biblical Christianity
    • The following is a list of the most significant verses from the Bible that support the Bible's claim to authority.
  • Bird Headed Beings in Mythology
    • Bird Headed Gods or Entities in Mythology always represent rebirth and resurrection.
  • Books of Common Prayer
    • The Book of Common Prayer is one of the major works of English literature. Since its introduction in the mid-1500's it has exerted enormous influence on the religious and literary lives of all who speak the English language. The Book of Common Prayer has gone through a number of editions, not only in England where it originated, but in all the places where the various Churches of the Anglican Communion are now active. We present here several dozen Books of Common Prayer, and related works, from all over the Anglican Communion. Click on one of the links at left and start exploring. Or see the link below for books you can actually hold in your hands.
  • British Hinduism Oral History Project interviews
  • Browse the Syllabi by Subject
    • The Syllabus Project offers a wide range of course syllabi from scholars working within the academic study of religion. Teachers in the field have contributed some of their most creative syllabi to this site.
  • Buddhism
    • A short description of the ideas of god, man and the universe, salvation and the afterlife, morals, and worship in Buddhism.
  • Buddhism and Shintōism in Japan : A to Z Photo Dictionary of Japanese Religious Sculpture and Art
    • This photo library and dictionary is a labor of love. After moving to Kamakura in 1993, I became intrigued by the many deities and faces of Japanese Buddhism and Shintōism. There are dozens of Buddhist temples and Shintō shrines near my home, many dating from the 8th to 13th centuries, many open to the public. There are 400+ deities in this dictionary, and 4,000+ photos of statuary from Kamakura, Nara, Kyoto, and elsewhere in Japan. Includes Ancient (Asuka and Nara periods (538-794)), Classical (Heian period (794-1184)), Medieval (Kamakura period (1185-1332) through the Edo era (1600-1868)), and Modern (everything since then (Meiji era 1868-1912) to modern times).
  • Buddhism Education Pack
    • As an important religion on the Silk Road for much of the first millennium AD, Buddhism played a central role in shaping tradition and culture across Central Asia for hundreds of years. Learn about the history and transmission of Buddhism across Asia, and study its teachings and iconography though items from Silk Road collections worldwide.
  • Buddhism on the Silk Road
    • The civilizations which flourished along the Silk Road in the first millennium AD were open to cultural and religious influences from both East and West. Many religions, including Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism, gained new followers. But it was Buddhism, travelling the trade routes of the Silk Road, which became the common factor uniting the different peoples of the Silk Road.
  • Buddhism, Based on the Teachings of Siddhartha Gautama
    • Buddhism currently has about 376 million followers and is generally listed as the world's fourth largest religion after Christianity, Islam and Hinduism.
  • Buddhist Art
    • This course serves as an introduction to the Buddhist artistic traditions of South, Southeast, and East Asia, as well as the Himalayas. It is organized into four units based on the development of Buddhist schools and artistic traditions in Southeast Asia, the Himalayas, and China, Korea, and Japan.
  • Buddhist Painting from India, Nepal, and Tibet
    • The production of Buddhist manuscripts illustrated with images of various Buddhist deities and/or scenes from the life of Shakyamuni flourished in Bihar and Bengal (present-day eastern India and Bangladesh) under the rule of the Pala dynasty (ca. 8th - 12th century).
  • Buddhist Sculpture from Kashmir
    • Kashmir's apparent seclusion in a valley in the northwest of India belies its importance as a crossroads linking northern India with parts of Central Asia, China, and Tibet. Consequently, there is a range of stylistic influences in Kashmiri art, which has, in turn, had a significant impact on the art of other places such as western Tibet.
  • Calendars
    • Descriptions of the Babylonian calendar, Jewish and Moslem calendars and the Era of Nabonassar, Jewish Eras of the World, a modern Luni-Solar calendar, the calendar in India, and Iranian calendars
  • Calvinism
    • This system of theology was reaffirmed by the Synod of Dordt in 1619 as the doctrine of salvation contained in the Holy Scriptures. The system was at that time formulated into "five points" in answer to the unscriptural five points submitted by the Arminians to the Church of Holland in 1610.
  • Cat Headed Beings
    • Many gods and goddesses in ancient Egypt were represented with cat heads.
  • Catholic Education: A Journal of Inquiry and Practice
    • This open access journal represents Catholic colleges and universities, Catholic education leaders, and scholars from a variety of disciplines who are collectively committed to contributing research and encouraging good practice in Catholic elementary, secondary, and higher education by advancing the field of Catholic educational research. From a Catholic perspective.
  • CDRI: Digital Resources for the Study of Religion
    • The CDRI database provides access to digital images of woodcuts, photographs, slides, papyri, coins, maps, postcards, manuscripts, lithographs, sermons, shape-note tune books, and various forms of Christian art, architecture, and iconography.
  • Christian Doctrine and Theology
    • Basic Christian Doctrine is the study of the revealed word of God. It is Christian Theology regarding the nature truth, God, Jesus, salvation, damnation, the Trinity, the Holy Spirit, the Gospel, resurrection, and more.
  • Christian Symbols: Ornaments
    • Handmade Christmas Tree Ornaments have been popular since the first Christmas Trees were used in sixteenth century Europe. A fairly recent innovation to this practice in the last half century is to use various traditional symbols of the Christian Faith as the motif of the ornaments. Some of the traditional symbols of Christianity are monograms composed of various combinations of letters of the name Christ or titles for Jesus. They are sometimes called Christograms or Chrismons™.
  • Christianity
    • Primarily historical documents separated by periods/areas/beliefs; Gnosticism; Early Christian; Eastern Churches; Mediaeval, Renaissance and Reformation; and Modern
  • Christianity
    • Short articles on Christianity: History, Size & Location, Origins, Holy Texts, Christians Believes In, Practices, The Gods, Worship, The Organisation, Christmas
  • Christianity for Children
    • This page sets out to describe the life and teaching of Jesus and includes some of his better known stories. It describes the main beliefs of Christians. It is written for little children - primary school age, it is therefore very simple.
  • Christianity: The World's Largest Religion
    • Information on Christianity, the Bible, background, and denominations
  • Christmas
    • Here is a collection of information about Christmas. It covers Christmas customs, the Christmas story, historical and geographical information.
  • Christmas and the ACLU
    • Every December 25th, millions of Americans celebrate Christmas.1 For many children, Christmas is the favorite holiday of the year. It is a time for families and friends to gather together. For many Christians it is one of the holiest days of the year.
  • Christmas Light
    • The Project Gutenberg EBook of Christmas Light, by Ethel Calvert Phillips.
  • Christmas Stories And Legends
    • The Project Gutenberg EBook of Christmas Stories And Legends, by Various.
  • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
    • Website for LDS with multitude of links and resources.
  • Church Rodent Glossary
    • Short reference articles arranged alphabetically
  • Comments on the Bhagavad Gita
    • By Dr. Kelley Ross. Written from a historical and philosophical viewpoint. Using the Juan Mascaró translation (Penguin Books, 1962), with references to the Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore translation (A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy, Princeton, 1957).
  • Comments on the Tao Te Ching
    • By Dr. Kelley Ross. Using the D.C. Lau translation (Penguin Books, 1963)
  • Concepts of Sin: All Points of View
    • Sin is major foundational concept in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and in many other religions.
  • Conflicts & Occasional Agreements in Truth Between Science and Religion
    • Topics include earth & the universe, ethics & morality, religious artifacts, human sexuality, and miracles
  • Confucius
    • This article covers the basic morals found in Confucianism, the Six Relationships and the Mandate of Heaven, as well as other aspects of the philosophy.
  • Confucius and Socrates Teaching Wisdom
    • Information on how and what Confucius and Socrates taught
  • Creeds and Confessions
    • Creeds and Confessions are written summaries of the Christian faith. Different Creeds have different reasons for coming into existence and they don't always agree with each other 100% of the time. However, they divulge the truth of the Christian faith in the essentials.
  • Cults a.k.a. New Religious Movements
    • Are they Spiritual, Positive, Gentle, Harmless, Heretical, Mind Controlling, Dangerous, Homicidal.... or all of the above? Topics include: negative aspects, attitudes toward NRMs, attacks on NRMs, and general information about cults.
  • Deism: About the God Who Created the Universe, Set it Going, and Then Possibly Left
    • Deists believe in the existence of God, on purely rational grounds, without any reliance on revealed religion or religious authority or holy text.
  • Deuterocanonical Apocrypha
    • The Deuterocanonical Books of the Bible These are books which are included in some version of the canonical Bible, but which have been excluded at one time or another, for textual or doctrinal issues. These are called 'Deuterocanonical', which literally means 'the secondary canon.'
  • Dharma and the Individual
  • Dharma: Leading a Righteous Life
    • Dharma is roughly translated as "religious duty." There are two principle dharmas, namely sanatana-dharma and varnashrama-dharma. There are also general moral codes called sadharana-dharma
  • Dictionary of Theology
    • This dictionary is provided for quick and easy reference. CARM is adding to the dictionary regularly and plans to have thousands of entries.
  • Divining America: Religion in American History
    • Essays by leading scholars in the field of religion with tips and suggestions for teaching religious topics in the classroom.
  • Doomsday, Destructive Religious Cults
    • Articles on Aum Shinri Kyo, The Family (Charles Manson), Branch Davidians, Heaven's Gate, Jeffrey Lundgren, Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God (Uganda), The People's Temple (Jim Jones), and Solar Temple
  • Dreamtime - Australian Aboriginal Beliefs
    • This article talks about the Australian aboriginal belief called the Dreamtime.
  • Early Christian and Byzantine Art
    • In this course, we will study the history of Eastern (Orthodox) Christian art. The course begins with an overview of the emergence of Christianity in the Late Antique period and the formation of the Christian visual language that grew out of the Classical tradition.
  • Early Christian Writings
    • Early Christian Writings is the most complete collection of documents from the first two centuries with translations and commentary. Includes the New Testament, Apocrypha, Gnostics, and Church Fathers.
  • Early Hindu Gods
    • Descriptions of 16 Hindu gods.
  • Early Islam
    • Various articles on Ancient Islamic culture
  • Easter
    • Its origins, meanings and practices
  • Easton's Illustrated Bible Dictionary
    • by M.G. Easton Thomas Nelson, publisher [1897]
  • East-West Contemplative Dialogue
    • Where Christian mysticism and metaphysics enters into dialogue with Buddhism and Hinduism.
  • EasyEnglish Bible
    • EasyEnglish is a form of simple English and is intended for those who speak English as a second language or have limited English skills, with a vocabulary of 2800 words.This site contains Bible commentaries, translations, studies, and other materials written in simple English.
  • Egyptian Gods Index
    • A list of ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses, with articles on each.
  • Egyptian Royal Tombs of the New Kingdom
    • This article by Dr. Kelley Ross describes various aspects of Egyptian tombs and pyramids. Includes diagrams of the tombs of several pharaohs.
  • Eighteen Treatises from the Mishna
    • by D. A. Sola and M. J. Raphall [1843] One of the first English translations of a substantial portion of the Mishna, the treasure-house of Jewish law and tradition.
  • Equipping Christians to Understand Other World Faiths and Religious Philosophies
    • Specifically written for Christians wanting to understand other world religions, this table cross-references the ideas of god, man & the universe, salvation & the afterlife, morals, and worship with the philosophies found in Biblical Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism.
  • Equipping Christians to Understand Other World Faiths and Religious Philosophies
    • This table cross-references beliefs about God, Christ, the Holy Spirit, Sin, Redemption, Salvation, and Retribution among several religions: Biblical Christianity, Christian Science, Spiritualism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism, Eastern Mysticism, The Way Int'l, Unity, and the Unification Church.
  • Eschatology
    • Competing theories of eschatology, end times, and millennialism
  • Eschatology
    • The following resources pertain to eschatology -- the study of the end times. There are three basic eschatological views which are held by those calling themselves "Reformed." These are: postmillennialism, amillennialism, and historic premillennialism. Absent from the list is dispensational premillennialism because it is a view which (a) is incompatible with the doctrines of grace (b) compromises God's aseity, and (c) compromises God's sovereignty. Below are included some critques of different aspects of dispensationalist teaching.
  • Evolution
    • Comparative viewpoints including definitions of terms, Theistic Evolutionism, Darwinian Evolutionism, Creationism, Timelines, Archaeology vs. Evolutionary Science vs. Bible, etc.
  • Existentialism
    • This resources covers the ideals of the philosophy of Existentialism and Jean Paul Sartre, using examples from Albert Camus, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Soren Kierkegaard. Existentialism promotes the view that the essence of human nature comes only after humankind exists. Without the existence of a god, life is without purpose or meaning.
  • Expressions of Faith
  • Faith and the Holocaust
    • A collection of written lectures by Rav Tamir Granot on topics such as faith and suffering, belief in God, and divine punishment, all in relation to the Holocaust.
  • Faith Positions
    • Articles on various religions' views of homosexuality, from the Human Rights Campaign.
  • Famous Women within Hinduism
    • Hindu scripture, particularly of the earlier period, places great value on contributions of women. The much-reported abuses of women in India demonstrate a falling away from traditional practice. Many famous women serve as lasting role models, though with the influence of feminism such values are less popular with the younger generation or need reinterpretation to suit the current social context.
  • Festivals – Celebrated by a Gurdwara
    • Festivals and Other days Celebrated in Gurdwaras
  • First Three Centuries of Christianity
    • The first three centuries of Christianity, as seen by religious liberals and historians
  • Foundationalism and Hermeneutics
    • Traditional foundationalism was the view that knowledge could be started, or started again, from nothing by finding pieces of certain and infallible knowledge, the "foundation" upon which all other knowledge could be constructed. Hermeneutics is the study of the theory and practice of interpretation.
  • Gallery of 1000 Buddhas
    • In Buddhist tradition, the replication of the image of the Buddha is an important way of spreading the word of Buddha, and of attaining merit for rebirth in the next life. Examples of this practice can be seen in Buddhist cave complexes around the world, including in the caves at Dunhuang where many of the artefacts displayed on IDP's online database were found.
  • Glossary
    • Many proper names are listed under this glossary with the link reference. These include names of places, people, festivals, organisations, and sacred texts. Some terms are also listed, or alternatively listed, under the index.
  • Glossary of Spiritual and Religious Terms
    • A comprehensive listing of religious terms and their definitions.
  • Glossary Terms for Worship
    • Hindu worship encompasses a broad range of activities, including even dance and drama (see Expressions of Faith). In this section we focus on practices which to the Western mind seem more clearly "acts of worship."
  • Gnosticism and Hermetica
    • This page indexes resources about Gnosticism, the Hermetica, and other related belief systems at sacred-texts.
  • God, Zen and the Intuition of Being
    • By James Arraj. This book covers topics such as metaphysics, Zen enlightenment, and mysticism.
  • Goddesses Who Weave and Spin (Spirals of Consciousness)
    • Goddesses who spin or weave is a common theme in religions.
  • Gods and Goddesses of Ancient India
    • Descriptions of many of the great gods and goddesses of India and Hinduism.
  • Gods and Goddesses of Love
    • In many religions, gods and goddesses exist that specialize in love or romance.
  • Gods, Goddesses & Other Deities, as Perceived by Various Religions
    • Many articles on the various perpsectives of deities
  • Greek Mythology
    • The accounts of several ancient Greek myths
  • Greek Myths, Legends & Gods, For Children
    • All about Greek myths, legends, and gods targeted toward educating children.
  • Guide to the Study of Philosophy
    • A simple guide to reading philosophical texts, philosophical dialogue, and writing research papers about philosophy by Dr. Garth Kemerling.
  • Haggada
    • Legends of the Jews by Louis Ginzberg [1909]. A huge collection of traditional stories which have grown up around the Bible narrative.
  • Halakha Archives
    • Hakakha is a combination of the religious law of the Jews as well as their religious customs and traditions.
  • Hindu Cosmology and Fundamental Concepts
  • Hindu Deities and Puranic Mythology
  • Hindu Doctrine
    • Hinduism has neither a common doctrine nor a single scripture as the source of its various teachings. It places more emphasis on orthopraxy than orthodoxy, encouraging relative freedom of thought within tightly defined codes of conduct and morality.
  • Hindu Sects
  • Hindu Terms
    • A glossary of terms about Hinduism, from Vedic Knowledge Online.
  • Hinduism
    • Short articles on Hinduism: History, Size & Location, Origins, Holy Texts, Hindus Believe In Practices, The Gods, Worship, The Organization, and Festivals.
  • Hinduism for Children
    • A page about the religion of Hinduism, targeted toward educating children.
  • Hinduism: Additional information & links
    • A collection of additional information and links to other materials regarding the Hindu religion.
  • Hinduism: The world's third largest religion
    • Hinduism does not have a single founder, a specific theological system, a single concept of deity, a single holy text, a single system of morality, a central religious authority, or the concept of a prophet.
  • Historic Church Documents
    • Creeds, Confessions, Catechisms, Sermons and more
  • Human Immortality by William James
    • James answers his critics who claim his thoughts are a pantheistic idea of immortality, not the Christian idea (survival in strictly personal form). He answers that one may conceive the mental world behind the veil in as individualistic a form as one pleases, without any detriment to the general scheme by which the brain is represented as a transmissive organ.
  • Hutterites
    • Encyclopedia of Selected Peaceful Societies
  • Illumine: Journal of the Centre for Studies in Religion and Society Graduate Students Association
    • Illumine is an interdisciplinary graduate journal produced by graduate students at the Centre for Studies in Religion and Society at the University of Victoria, Canada. We welcome scholarly submissions from graduate students of all disciplines whose work reflects in some way the interrelationship of religion with society and culture, in either a contemporary or historical context.
  • Important Festivals
    • Hinduism almost certainly has a longer list of festivals than any other religious tradition, and there are considerable regional and denominational variations. Twelve of the more popular and widely celebrated events are listed below.
  • Important Religious Topics
    • From morality and truth, to terrorism, tolerance, and political issues
  • In pictures: Life at the temple
    • Hindu temple images
  • In the Footsteps of the Kuzari: An Introduction To Jewish Philosophy
    • A collection of essays by Prof. Shalom Rosenberg on numerous topics surrounding Jewish philosophy confronting the modern world
  • Index of Christian Art
    • It gives me great pleasure to welcome you to the Index of Christian Art web site. Little did the founder of the Index, Charles Rufus Morey, realize in 1917 how this resource would develop to be the most important archive of medieval art in existence and the most specialized resource for the iconographer. The Index has developed a life of its own over the last ninety years which has extended beyond the confines of its home in Princeton and is destined to have an even greater impact with the development of an electronic resource such as this. Despite the initial belief that all medieval art could be iconographically analyzed within fifteen years of the start of the project, it is a task which is not only still ongoing, but one which is thriving and ensures a prosperous future for the archive.
  • Index to the Diamond Sutra
    • The Diamond Sutra is an important Mahayana Buddhist text.
  • India in Primitive Christianity
    • The connection between Christianity and Buddhism is unmistakable, both in terms of the traditional narratives of the respective founders, and in their parable-riddled attributed sayings. Some, particularly occultists, have attempted to explain this by proposing a residence in India by Jesus during his 'lost years,' for instance, Notovich, and the derivative work by Dowling. Arthur Lillie here examines possible historical linkages between the two religions from a critical, rationalist, viewpoint.
  • Inerrancy
    • Inerrancy: Is the Bible free of error? All points of view.
  • Instiutio Catholica
    • This list was compiled from a number of prayer books that were composed from the 18th to the mid 20th century. Prayer books from this period would often contain short summaries on the teachings of the Church and the duties of good Christians.
  • Intermountain West Journal of Religious Studies
    • The Intermountain West Journal of Religious Studies is designed to promote the academic study of religion at the graduate and undergraduate levels. The journal is affiliated with the Religious Studies Program at Utah State University.
  • International Religous Freedom Reports
    • The annual Report to Congress on International Religious Freedom – the International Religious Freedom Report – describes the status of religious freedom in every country. The report covers government policies violating religious belief and practices of groups, religious denominations and individuals, and U.S. policies to promote religious freedom around the world. The U.S. Department of State submits the reports in accordance with the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998.
  • Introduction to Learning Gemara
    • The Gemara is the rabbinical commentary on the Mishna, which is the oral traditions of Judaism.
  • Islam
    • 622 AD-present, a detailed history
  • Islam
    • Short articles on Islam: History, Size & Location, Origins, Holy Texts, Muslim believes In, Practices, The Gods, Worship, The Organisation
  • Islam
    • Some basic facts about Islam, including God, man & the universe, salvation & the afterlife, morals, and worship.
  • Islam for Children
    • Part of the RE Agreed Syllabus for Oxfordshire is to learn about a selection of World religions. In our school we look at five major religions, Islam is one of them. I have written this information for children between the ages of 7 and 11. It is therefore simplistic.
  • Islam Photos and Artwork
    • Calligraphy, Sacred Sites and Artwork
  • Islam: The Second Largest World Religion and Growing
    • Many articles on beliefs and practices, tolerance, peace, and conflicts in Islam
  • Japanese Buddhist Art
    • The introduction of Buddhism to Japan was one of the most important events in Japanese history and had a lasting effect on the development of the country's thought, art and culture. Today, Buddhism is the dominant religion in Japan.
  • Jehovah's Witnesses
    • A description of the viewpoints of Jehovah's Witnesses, including their views on Christ, the Holy Spirit, sin, redemption, salvation, and retribution. Written by Christians.
  • Jehovah's Witnesses
    • Information from a mainstream Christian perspective on Jehovah's Witnesses
  • Jesus Christ
    • A melting pot of Yeshua of Nazareth's (a.k.a. Jesus Christ's) personal teachings, the teachings of Paul, the teachings about Jesus by his disciples and by various groups in primitive Christianity, and the inclusion of Pagan Greek philosophy led to the development of the largest religion in the world: Christianity.
  • Journal of Buddhist Ethics
    • The Journal of Buddhist Ethics is the first academic journal dedicated entirely to Buddhist ethics.
  • Journal of Religion and Society
    • This journal promotes the study of religious groups and beliefs among the various peoples of the world, past and present, with emphasis on American religions and the Western religious traditions.
  • Judaism
    • A very basic introduction to Judaism, covering god, man & the universe, salvation and the afterlife, morals, and worship.
  • Judaism for Children
    • Part of the RE Agreed Syllabus for Oxfordshire is to learn about a selection of World religions. In our school we look at five major religions, Judaism is one of them. I have written this information for children between the ages of 7 and 11. It is therefore simplistic.
  • Judaism: Beliefs, Practices, Jewish-Christian Relations, News
    • A list of articles on Judaism, including the Old Testament, beliefs, the Holocaust, and anti-semitism
  • Karma
    • The Problem of Evil in India. Uses the example of Jainism's belief in non-action as a path toward salvation.
  • Korean Buddhist Painting
    • The introduction of Buddhism to Korea in the late 4th century C.E. had a decisive effect on the formation of early Korean art and culture. Besides the importation of Buddhist texts from China and the arrival of monks to propagate the doctrines, temples were constructed and devotional images, both painted and sculpted, were created to be enshrined within them.
  • Learning About Surveys
    • Students will examine and participate in the design, development, implementation, analysis, and interpretation of surveys. The culminating activity enables the students to apply the skills and knowledge that they have developed in order to implement a survey of their own design and then interpret and report the results of their survey. From the Association of Religion Data Archives.
  • Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues
    • From ReligiousTolerance.org, this large resource provides an abundance of information about sexual orientation issues and religion.
  • Life-Death-Rebirth Goddesses
    • Gods and goddesses representing life, death, and rebirth occur in many religions.
  • Logic
    • Logical arguments and use of language, fallacies, reasoning, form, and inference.
  • Martin Luther
    • Leader of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century in Germany; born at Eisleben, 10 November, 1483; died at Eisleben, 18 February, 1546.
  • Medicine, Religion and Politics in Africa and the African Diaspora
    • MIT Opencourseware for a class on Medicine, Religion and Politics in Africa and the African Diaspora
  • Medieval Music Database
  • Mesoamerica
    • Mesoamerica covers the area of central America. This page covers the topics of the pyramids of Mesoamerica and the Aztec, Inca, Maya, Olmec, and Toltec peoples.
  • Messianic Judaism
    • Messianic Jews follow a Jewish beliefs and practices while maintaining that Jesus of Nazareth is the son of God.
  • Meta-groups, Wings, Families, Denominations, Faith Groups
    • Explanations of the thousands of denominations of Christianity
  • Module Fourteen: Religion in Africa
    • Module Fourteen: Religion in Africa will introduce students to the rich and diverse tradition of religious belief and practice in Africa. This will be accomplished through the use of narrative, maps, and photographs.This module is comprised of four learning activities. Teachers may choose to teach the entire module or to select among the learning activities.
  • Mormonism
    • A brief introduction to the views of Mormons, including God, Christ, the Holy Spirit, sin, salvation, redemption, and retribution.
  • Mormonism
    • Information from a mainstream Christian perspective on Mormonism and the Book of Mormon
  • Muslim Life in America
    • A glimpse into Muslim life in the United States. Information compiiled in 2002.
  • Mysticism, Metaphysics and Maritain: On the Road to the Spiritual Unconscious
    • By James Arraj. The twentieth century has seen a remarkable renewal of interest in Christian mysticism. In its first decades the accent was on the rediscovery and development of a genuine theology of contemplation, while its closing years are seeing a widespread interest in the practice of contemplative prayer.
  • Myth, Ritual, and Symbolism
    • MIT course: We understand our world and shape our lives in large part by assigning meanings to objects, beings, and persons; by connecting things together in symbolic patterns; and by creating elaborate forms of symbolic action and narrative. In this introductory subject we consider how symbols are created and structured; how they draw on and give meaning to different domains of the human world; how they are woven into politics, family life, and the life cycle; and how we can interpret them.
  • Myths and Legends of the Sioux
    • Myths and Legends of the Sioux by Marie L. Mclaughlin
  • National Profiles
    • Choose a country and read a summary of its religious data, including history, percentage of adherents, and socio-economic factors. From the Association of Religion Data Archives.
  • Native American Spirituality
    • Many followers of Native American spirituality, do not regard their spiritual beliefs and practices as a religion in the way in which many Christians do. Their beliefs and practices form a integral and seamless part of their very being.
  • Native Americans
    • A list of several of the main Native American tribes with additional pages on each tribe.
  • Native and Christian
    • A Look at Christianity on Indian Reservations
  • Navigating the Bible II
    • STUDY Translation This is the Five Books of Moses along with commentaries. Torah The weekly reading with Hebrew, translation, transliteration and chanting. Haftarot Selections from Prophets that accompanies the weekly and holiday Torah readings. Brachot The blessings before and after reading the Torah. Divrei Torah A summary of each portion with kind permission from Ohr Somayach International.
  • NET Bible Maps
    • This is the first time that data recorded by a satellite has been used in a Bible to illustrate the Holy Land. When you compare these images to other satellite imagery or photographs, you will immediately notice their unique resolution and quality. This gives you, the reader, a great deal of information--relative altitude, topography, vegetation, available mountain passes, travel routes, etc.--and this information is often vital to understanding the Bible.
  • New Testament
    • Writings on themes and stories that emerge from the New Testament, a Christian holy text.
  • Objects of Worship and Shrine Treasures
    • From the encyclopedia of shinto. Lists all the different objects people worship within this religion.
  • Observing Congregations: A Guide for First Visits (and Beyond)
    • By Nancy T. Ammerman. A guide developed to introduce students to the steps involved in observing a congregation or religious group from a sociological perspective.
  • Offerings and Talismans at/in Shinto Shrines
    • From the encyclopedia of shinto. Lists the different talismans and offerings within this religion.
  • On Christmas Day in the Morning
    • Project Gutenberg's On Christmas Day in the Morning, by Grace S. Richmond.
  • Other Arguments for Atheism
    • An overview of some of the basic arguments for atheism, including the problem of evil, religious diversity, lack of empirical evidence, naturalism, morality, freedom of dogma, the influence of religion on society, the rights of children, God's silence, and reasonable non-belief.
  • Pagan Christs
    • J.M. Robertson herein challenges not only the historical authenticity of the canonical accounts of the founding of Christianity, but also Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, and Judaism. He seeks to answer the question implicit in Kersey Graves' 1875 screed, The World's Sixteen Crucified Saviors. Why so many similar stories of savior figures in world religion?
  • Paul Tillich
    • Several books and essay by and about Paul Tillich, a German-American theologian and philosopher.
  • People, gods and places
    • This page is taken from the website Assyrian Empire Builders that deals with transcribing ancient Assyrian letters. These names appear in the translations of the royal correspondence. This is a good source for anyone needing a list of Assyrian deities.
  • Pesach Journal
    • Pesach, or Passover, is a well-known week-long holiday in Judaism, celebrating the Exodus and freedom of the Jewish slaves from Egypt.
  • Philosophy of Religion
    • A guide to the basic forms of religious belief, arguements for the existence of a god, the problem of evil, and major religious doctrines.
  • Philosophy of Science
    • A list of articles ranging from topics such as geology and astronomy, evolution, meteorology, mathematics, linguistics, physics, space and time, and the history of science.
  • Photographs of Medieval Papal and Church documents
    • The papal seal affixed to most bulls is made of lead and is inscribed with the name of the reigning pope on one side and representations of the heads of St. Peter and St. Paul on the other side with the abbreviation SPASPE. SPA is for St .Paul and SPE St. Peter.
  • Pilgrim's Progress Graphics
    • The third edition of The Pilgrim's Progress, published in 1679, appears to have been the first printing with any illustration. It included what is now known as "the sleeping portrait" which depicted not only Bunyan in a dreaming pose, but also Christian journeying from the City of Destruction toward the Wicket-gate.
  • Politics and Religion
    • From Shattering the Sacred Myths: Explores the relationship between politics and religion leading up to the rise of the religious right in America and the emergence of political Islam.
  • Prolegomena to the History of Ancient Israel
    • Wellhausen's theories about the development of the Old Testament are for Biblical criticism what Einstein is to physics. Wellhausen devised a new paradigm which explained many of the apparent inconsistencies in the Biblical texts. In the process, he upset many traditionalists who didn't like the concept that the early portions of the Bible were the product of four separate authors. Or that the Levitical code was redacted into the text by the priestly class at a very late date in the evolution of the Bible. Or that the Bible even evolved...
  • Psychology of Religion
    • Many areas of psychology study religion.
  • PulpitRodent: Published Writing
  • Qur'an Selections
    • Selected English translations by Sanderson Beck
  • Redemption
    • Various views on redemption from the perspectives of Christianity, Christian Science, Spiritualism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism, Eastern Mysticism, The Way International, Unity, and the Unification Church.
  • Reformed Apologetics
    • Contains articles such as Responses to Richard Dawkins. Unfortunately many of the articles appear to be externally located.
  • Religion - Bible
    • This resource contains copies of the King James version of the Christian Bible, containing the Old Testament and the New Testament.
  • Religion - Book of Mormon
    • A copy of the Book of Mormon as translated by Joseph Smith
  • Religion and Humanism
    • The Sophists to Secular Humanism
  • Religion and Politics
    • Various essays on the intersection of religion and politics
  • Religion Dictionary
    • A dictionary of religious terms from the Association of Religion Data Archives.
  • Renaissance Masses, 1440-1520
    • A large collection of MP3 files of the major Renaissance masses
  • Resurrection
    • Most Christians believe that Jesus was executed in Jerusalem by the Roman occupying army circa 30 CE, and that a miracle happened about a day and a half later: he was bodily resurrected. This is one of their cardinal beliefs.
  • Retribution
    • Views on retribution from the perspectives of Christianity, Christian Science, Spiritualism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism, Eastern Mysticism, The Way International, Unity, and the Unification Church.
  • Revenge in the Name of Religion: The Cycle of Violence in Plateau and Kano States
    • This report provides the first detailed analysis of clashes between Muslims and Christians in northern and central Nigeria and the factors that continue to threaten the stability of central and northern Nigeria. It provides detailed documentation of two major outbreaks of violence in the town of Yelwa, Plateau State, and a reprisal attack in the northern city of Kano.
  • Rig-Veda (Sanskrit)
    • The complete Rig Veda in Sanskrit, in Unicode Devanagari script and standard romanization.
  • Ritual Implements and Vestments at/in Shinto Shrines
    • From the ecyclopedia of shinto.
  • Roman Gods and Goddesses
    • At the founding of Rome, the gods were 'numina', divine manifestations, faceless, formless, but no less powerful. The idea of gods as anthropomorphized beings came later, with the influence from Etruscans and Greeks, which had human form. Some of the Roman Gods are at least as old as the founding of Rome.
  • Rosemary A Christmas story
    • Project Gutenberg's Rosemary, by C. N. Williamson and A. M. Williamson.
  • Rosh Ha-shana Journal
    • A list of articles about the Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashana, the Jewish New Year and the first of the High Holy Days
  • Sacramentology
    • Articles on the sacraments from a Reformed persepective.
  • Sacred Sites of Africa
    • Countries include: Algeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, Mali, Morocco, Senegal, Sudan, Tunisia.
  • Sacred Spaces in Shinto
    • Shinto-"the way of the kami"- is rooted deeply in pre-historic Japanese religious and agricultural practices. The term kami can refer to Japanese mythological deities, but also can mean divinity manifested in natural objects, places, animals, and even human beings. Shinto rituals and celebrations stress harmony between deities, man, and nature -- a key feature of Japanese religious life and art to the present time.
  • Sacred Texts of Hinduism
  • Salvation
    • Salvation: Historic and current Christian beliefs
  • Salvation
    • Views on salvation from the perspective of Christianity, Christian Science, Spiritualism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism, Eastern Mysticism, The Way International, Unity, and the Unification Church
  • Salvation and the Afterlife
    • Views on salvation and the afterlife from the perspectives of Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. Written from a Christian perspective.
  • Santeria: a Syncretistic African/Roman Catholic Religion
    • Terminology, beliefs and practices, and conflicts
  • Sayings of the Jewish Fathers (Pirqe Aboth)
    • tr. by Charles Taylor [1897] A beautiful extract from the Talmud, which has been used as liturgy. Devoted to ethics with some mystical touches, the Pirqe Aboth is distinguished for its transparency and simplicity. This was one of the first English translations in modern times of any portion of the Talmud.
  • Science and Religion
    • In public discussions of evolution and creationism, we are sometimes told by creationists and opponents of religion alike that we must choose between belief in creation and acceptance of the theory of evolution, between religion and science. Is this a fair demand? Is the choice that stark? Can one believe in God and accept evolution? Can one both accept what science teaches and engage in religious belief and practice?
  • Science and Theology
    • Articles and full-length books on the relationship between science and religion, written primarily from a Christian perspective.
  • Scientific Humanism and the Humanist Manifestos
    • Secular Humanism is a non-theistically based philosophy which promotes humanity as the measure of all things. It had its roots in the rationalism of the 18th Century and the free thought movement of the 19th Century.
  • Self-Contradictions of the Bible
    • Published anonymously by Burr in pamphlet form, Self-Contradictions of the Bible was, and remains an essential reference work for Atheists, Biblical skeptics and doubters, as well as believers who want to know what the opposition is up to. It is a set of 144 thematically organized pairs of Bible quotations that for the most part, will immediately induce cognitive dissonance in some. You have been warned. Burr was not an academic: he was a newspaper reporter, an Atheist obviously, a supporter of Darwinism, but an amateur Bible scholar, and sometimes that shows in the selections. Not everything here is, frankly, a direct hit, and the relentless out-of-context quotes mirror how the text can be abused by its adherents. However, this is a working-class Atheist tract. It is not concerned with philosophical niceities. Rather, it is a playbook for use in actual battle. This is another one of those books which you'll either love or hate. Or perhaps you'll like half of it. It is strange that even in the midst of this critical broadside against the Bible, it is possible to enjoy the poetry and archaic wisdom of this text, and perhaps some of the mystery as well.
  • Seventh Day Adventism
    • information on Seventh Day Adventism from a mainstream Christian perspective
  • Shavuot Journal
    • Shavout is the Jewish holiday that celebrates when God gave the Israelites the book of the Torah at Mount Sinai.
  • Shrine Architecture
    • Because shrine grounds or precincts (keidai) are considered sacred, some kind of separating device is used to demarcate the shrine grounds from outside "profane" areas.
  • Shrine Economics
    • From the encyclopedia of Shinto. Lists the different forms of shrines and what each one deals with.
  • Shrines and Cultic Practices
    • From the encyclopedia of Shinto. Lists the different shrines and how and why to worship them.
  • Siddur
    • The Standard Prayer Book by Simeon Singer [1915] Complete English translation of a Jewish Prayer Book, or Siddur, including prayers, holidays, ceremonies, and important texts.
  • Sikhism
    • Articles on the origins, beliefs, practices, and symbols of Sikhism
  • Sikhism
    • Short articles on Sikhism: History, Size & Location, Origins, Holy Texts, Sikhs Believe In, Practices, The Gods, Worship, The Organisation
  • Sikhism for Children
    • A page about the religion of Sikhism, targeted toward educating children.
  • Sin
    • Views on sin from the perspectives of Christianity, Christian Science, Spiritualism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism, Eastern Mysticism, The Way International, Unity, Unification Church
  • Sketches of Church History
    • From the Age of the Apostles to Missions-The Inquisition
  • Snake-bird gods fascinated both Aztecs and Ancient Egyptians
    • Ancient Mexicans and Egyptians who never met and lived centuries and thousands of miles apart both worshiped feathered-serpent deities, built pyramids and developed a 365-day calendar.
  • Some Theories on the Origins of Religion
    • Information on faith-based and secular-based theories on the origins of religion.
  • Speaking in tongues
    • Christian practices and information: Salvation, baptism of the Holy Spirit, and speaking in tongues.
  • Specific Similarities Between the Lives of Jesus and Krishna
    • Were the stories of the Christian deity Jesus copied from the stories of the Hindu deity Krishna?
  • Stone Sculpture from Hindu Temples
    • The Hindu temple represents a temporary abode for the gods, a place where they make themselves visible and accessible to the devotee.
  • Studying Religion
    • A brief introduction to ways of defining and studying religion. Includes biographies of famous religious studies thinkers.
  • Sun of God
    • By Vladimir Antonov. This book is a commentary to the methodological principles of human spiritual development that were given by Jesus Christ through B.Cullen in the book “The Book of Jesus”.
  • Supernatural Entities & Human Leaders
    • Articles on the supernatural and human entities of Christianity, including demons, God, Satan, Yesuha, Barnabas, Judas, Mary, St. Nicholas, and Valentine
  • Symbola
    • There are three early Creeds, or Professions of Faith as they are also known, that are considered official in the Catholic Church; the Nicene Creed, the Athanasian Creed and the Apostles' Creed. These three creeds form an important statement about what we as Catholics believe.
  • Tanakh (Hebrew Bible)
  • Taoism (a.k.a. Daoism)
    • Articles on texts, Tai Chi, practices, and history
  • Texts of Judaism
  • The Eight Limbs, The Core of Yoga
    • A description of the eight limbs of yoga, including yama, niyama, asanas, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana, and samadhi.
  • The Amish
    • There is no consensus on exactly where the Amish fit within Christianity: Some consider them conservative Protestants. Most Amish would probably consider themselves to be Anabaptists.
  • The Apocrypha
    • Apocrypha means 'hidden things' in Greek. The Apocryphical books of the Bible fall into two categories: texts which were included in some canonical version of the Bible at some point, and other texts of a Biblical nature which have never been canonical.
  • The Axial Age(s): Times of Rapid Religious Change
    • From the period of 800-200 B.C.E. many major world religions came into being, including Buddhism, Confucianism, Hinduism, Jainism, Judaism, and Taoism.
  • The Babylonian Talmud
    • Translated by M.L. Rodkinson [1918] A massive ten volume abridgement of the Talmud, the Jewish compendium of law and tradition, the only extensive public domain translation. Presented for the first time anywhere on the Internet at sacred-texts.com.
  • The Bhagavad Gita
  • The Bhagavad Gita
    • A modern prose translation of the Gita, sanctioned by the International Gita Society.
  • The Bhagavad Gita in Sanskrit
    • A Unicode presentation of the Gita in Romanized Sanskrit.
  • The Bible
    • The Bible is the most widely printed and published book in the world. It is the source of the Christian religion and contains what Christians need to know about God, Jesus, salvation, and the Christian life. The Bible is a wonderful book of wisdom and revelation.
  • The Bible
    • This course is an introduction to major books from both the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament. Particular attention has been given to literary techniques, issues resulting from translation from the original Hebrew and Greek, and the different historical periods that produced and are reflected in the Bible. Investigation of the Bible as influence in later narrative, philosophic, and artistic traditions.
  • The Bible and Critical Theory
    • The Bible and Critical Theory is an exploratory and innovative online scholarly journal for biblical studies, published by the Bible and Critical Theory Seminar. The journal explores the intersections between critical theory, understood in the broad sense, and biblical studies. It publishes peer-reviewed articles that investigate the contributions from critical theory to biblical studies, and contributions from biblical studies to critical theory.
  • The Children's Book of Christmas Stories
    • Project Gutenberg's The Children's Book of Christmas Stories, by Various.
  • The Christmas Angel
    • The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Christmas Angel, by Abbie Farwell Brown.
  • The Christmas Child
    • The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Christmas Child, by Hesba Stretton.
  • The Church in the Southern Black Community
    • This collection collects autobiographies, biographies, church documents, sermons, histories, encyclopedias, and other published materials. These texts present a collected history of the way Southern African Americans experienced and transformed Protestant Christianity into the central institution of community life.
  • The Church, the Council and the Unconscious: How Hidden Forces Shaped the Catholic Church
    • by James Arraj. A brief look at extraordinary phenomena will alert us to the type of forces that are at work, but our task is much more difficult, for it is to glimpse how similar unconscious forces influence religious life, the new movements, the church’s teaching on birth control, the papacy and many other aspects of contemporary Catholic life.
  • The Council of Trent
    • The canons and decrees of the sacred and oecumenical Council of Trent, that rejected the Protestant Reformation.
  • The Dhammapada
    • The Dhammapada is an anthology of verses, belonging to the part of the Theravada Pali Canon of scriptures known as the Khuddaka Nikaya, and consists of 423 verses. This article lists each verse.
  • The Encyclopedia of Religion and Society
    • The Encyclopedia of Religion and Society marks a unique venture in that it attempts to bring together in a single-volume compendium a state-of-the-art summary of the insights gained by the principal social sciences of religion: anthropology, psychology, and sociology.
  • The Epics
  • The Foreign Missionary Movement in the 19th and early 20th Centuries
    • By Daniel H. Bays. A history of the Protestant missionary movement in the United States.
  • The Foundations of Value, Part I
    • Logical Issues: Justification, First Principles, and Socratic Method. Justifying beliefs based on the teachings of Plato, Aristotle, Hume, Kant, Fries, & Nelson.
  • The Four Ashrams
    • Ashram means "a place of spiritual shelter." Each stage of life is not only a natural part of the journey from cradle to grave, but a time at which spirituality can be developed.
  • The Four Main Denominations
    • Classifying the many groups within Hinduism is a challenge, and not so easy (as, perhaps, with other religions.) In so doing, we may inadvertently promote the idea that Hinduism is a single monolithic religion. It is, more accurately, a family of religions, with each family member autonomous but sharing distinctive family features.
  • The God of Christianity
    • The term "trinity" implies a grouping of three. In religious usage, "trinity" generally refers to a group of three deities -- or three aspects of a single deity -- who exist in a special relationship with each other.
  • The Gospel of Philip
    • Translated by Wesley W. Isenberg. The Gospel of Philip is one of the Gnostic Gospels, only recently found buried in a cave near Nag Hammadi, Egypt, in 1945.
  • The Hebrew Scriptures (a.k.a. The Old Testament)
    • These articles describe the Hebrew Scriptures, including the Apocrypha
  • The History of Religions: Essays in Methodology
    • by Mircea Eliade and Joseph M. Kitagawa (eds.).
  • The Holy Bible
    • From the Catholic Encyclopedia, side-by-side translations of the Old Testament and the New Testament in Greek, English, and Latin.
  • The Hymns of Martin Luther by Martin Luther
    • The hymns of Martin Luther set to their original melodies.
  • The Jesse Tree
    • While nearly everyone has a Christmas tree, there has been reluctance in some circles to incorporate Christmas trees into the church sanctuary, arising from suspicions about the pagan origin of the symbol. However, since the Christmas tree has become such a part of Christmas celebration around the world, it seems more important to give it some clearly Christian meaning.
  • The Jungian-Christian Dialogue
    • Where Jungian Psychology encounters Christian philosophy, theology and spirituality
  • The Koran
    • Search or browse the verses in the Koran translated by M.H. Shakir and published by Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an, Inc., in 1983.
  • The Large Catechism
  • The Law of Karma
    • The law of karma underpins the process of transmigration of the soul. Karma literally means "action," but more often refers to the accumulated reactions to activities. Thus we talk of "good karma" and "bad karma," which are stored reactions that gradually unfold to determine our unique destiny.
  • The Laws of the Festivals, by Rav David Brofsky
    • A collection of lectures on the laws of various Jewish holidays
  • The Lutheran Confessions: What Are They?
  • The Madonna in Art
    • Estelle M. Hurll. Includes many illustrations of the Madonna and Child.
  • The Major Egyptian Books of the Underworld
    • Information on the Amduat, Pyramid Text, The Book of the Dead, Coffin Text, The Book of Caverns, The Book of Gates, Litany of Re, Books of the Heavens, and The Book of the Heavenly (Celestial) Cow
  • The Migration of Symbols
    • This is a study of the migration and mutation of symbols by a late 19th century Belgian lawyer and Masonic scholar, Count Goblet d'Alviella (b. 1846, d. 1925). Originally published in 1891 in French, this book covers a huge web of interchangeable symbols, which are found over a wide range of cultures through the Near East, India, Europe, and further abroad, notably in Mesoamerica. He attempts to explain the widespread use of symbols such as the Swastika, the Tree of Life, the Winged Globe, the Trident and the Caduceus.
  • The Nag Hammadi Library
    • Inn 1945, an Arab peasant discovered a jar full of ancient manuscripts of Gnostic texts, which are now referred to as the Nag Hammadi Library. This resource contains the English translations of these texts.
  • The New Friesian Theory of Religious Value
    • Based on the teachings of Nelson and Otto
  • The New Upanishad: Structure and Cognition of the Absolute
    • By Vladimir Antonov.
  • The Odyssey
    • by Homer; translated by Samuel Butler. The poem mainly centers on the Greek hero Odysseus and his long journey home following the fall of Troy.
  • The Olympians
    • The Twelve Olympians, in Greek mythology, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus.
  • The Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies Lectures
    • Lectures can be downloaded.
  • The Pentecostal Group of Denominations
    • The Pentecostal family of denominations form one branch of conservative Protestantism within Christianity. A major defining feature of Pentecostalism is their belief in Glossolalia -- the ability to speak "in tongues". Another is the unusual freedom and spontaneity exhibited during their religious services.
  • The Reformation
    • The usual term for the religious movement which made its appearance in Western Europe in the sixteenth century, and which, while ostensibly aiming at an internal renewal of the Church, really led to a great revolt against it, and an abandonment of the principal Christian beliefs.
  • The Religious Society of Friends: The Quakers
    • This webpage describes the history, beliefs, practices, and the Quaker Meeting of Quakers, also known as the Society of Friends.
  • The Revised Common Lectionary
    • a service of the Vanderbilt Divinity Library
  • The Rig-Veda
    • translated by Ralph Griffith [1896] A complete English translation of the Rig Veda.
  • The Role of Religion and Ethics in the Prevention and Control of AIDS
    • This paper covers the topics of AIDS as a general threat, religion and sensual pleasure, sexual relations & marriage, religion and health, patient's rights, and human rights. 1992, World Health Organization.
  • The Seasons of the Church Year
    • We keep track of time and seasons of the year by using calendars that provide us opportunities to observe, commemorate, and celebrate certain events or occasions. The changing seasons of the year also provide us with recurring opportunities to celebrate the Christian Faith in worship. The Christian church, following earlier Jewish tradition, has long used the seasons of the year as an opportunity for festivals and holidays, sacred time set aside to worship God as the Lord of life.
  • The Secret Library of Scientology
    • An expansive library for the critical study of Scientology.
  • The Seven Tablets of Creation
    • This is an etext of L.W. Kings' authoritative work on the Enuma Elish, the Babylonian creation myth. This etext includes the complete introduction, and the English text of the Enuma Elish and other related texts, with selected footnotes. The Enuma Elish is the earliest written creation myth, in which the God Marduk battles the chaos Goddess Tiamat and her evil minions. The name 'Enuma Elish' is derived from the first two words of the myth, meaning 'When in the Height'. Tiamat takes the form of a gigantic snake, and Marduk battles and defeats her using an arsenal of super-weapons. After his victory Marduk is made the leader of the Gods by acclamation. Marduk divides Tiamat's corpse into two portions, the upper half becoming the sky and the lower half, the earth. Marduk then creates humanity from his blood and bone.
  • The Shaker Compendium by F.W. Evans [1859]
    • The Shakers were (or are) a unique Christian group who fled persecution in England, arriving in America in the 18th Century. They believed that their founder, Ann Lee, was the second coming of Christ. The Shakers believed that God had both male and female aspects, and practiced equality of men and women at all levels in their organization. They were one of the first churches in America to integrate their congregations, involving both Blacks and Native Americans from the very start. Known for simple values, hard work, communal living and absolute celibacy, the Shakers went into a long decline during the 20th Century. They are only today represented by a few elders at one farm. It is difficult not to be moved by their sincere belief that any act, including dance, song, and even manual labor, can be an act of worship.
  • The Skeptic's Annotated Book of Mormon
    • An analysis of the Book of Mormon from a skeptic's perspective.
  • The Skeptic's Annotated Quran
    • An analysis of the Quran from a skeptic's perspective.
  • The Talmud
    • by Joseph Barclay [1878] Seventeen representative tracts from the Talmud.
  • The Ten Commandments: Many Topics, Viewpoints & Interpretations
    • The 10 Commandments from the Old Testament of the Bible are interpreted differently depending on one's tradition
  • The Thin Santa Claus The Chicken Yard That Was a Christmas Stocking
    • The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Thin Santa Claus, by Ellis Parker Butler.
  • The Westminster Shorter Catechism
    • This document contains the Westminster Shorter Catechism with full Scripture references.
  • The Wisdom of the Talmud
    • by Ben Zion Bokser [1951] A great introduction to the Talmud for contemporary readers.
  • The Writings of Spinoza
    • This page indexes writings of the philosopher Baruch Spinoza at sacred-texts. Spinoza (b. 1632, d. 1677) was one of the first of the Enlightenment philosophers. He was born to Sephardic Portuguese Jewish parents, living in the Netherlands due to the Inquisition. His views were so novel, particularly his biblical criticism, that some of his works were only published posthumously, particularly the Ethics. He was essentially excommunicated from the Jewish community, and took on the name Benedictus, the Latin translation of Baruch, 'Blessed.' He worked all his life as a lens grinder.
  • Theological Librarianship: An Online Journal of the American Theological Library Association
    • An open access journal publishing essays, columns, critical reviews, bibliographic essays, and peer-reviewed articles on various aspects of theological librarianship and its contribution to theological education.
  • Theories of Creation
    • Creation theories from science, mathematics, religion, and mythology
  • There Is No Spoon
    • An analysis of the religious and philosophical symbolism and implications of the 1999 movie "The Matrix."
  • Thesaurus Precum Latinarum
    • The Thesaurus Precum Latinarum is a collection of Latin prayers and Latin hymns with English translations and brief commentaries. The collection contains a wide range of items, such as basic prayers, creeds, prayers before and after Mass, Eucharistic Adoration, Litanies, Hymns, Little Offices, Marian devotions, the Rosary, the Angelus, prayers to the Angels and Saints, and prayers for various occasions.
  • Things to Know about Hinduism
    • Resources for children about Hinduism including Satsang, Festivals, Scriptures, Hinduism, and Sacred Places
  • Tibet
    • A brief overview of Tibet, including history, architecture, art, and religion.
  • Tibetan Philosophy
    • The Bodhisattva, Madhyamaka and Yogacara, and Tibetan philosophy
  • Tipitaka: The Pali Canon
    • The Tipitaka, or Pali canon, is the collection of primary Pali language texts which form the doctrinal foundation of Theravada Buddhism. The Tipitaka and the paracanonical Pali texts (commentaries, chronicles, etc.) together constitute the complete body of classical Theravada texts.
  • Toolbox Library
    • A collection of primary resources—historical documents, literary texts, and works of art—thematically organized with notes and discussion questions from the national Humanities Center.
  • Tractate Sanhedrin, Mishnah and Tosefta
    • by Herbert Danby [1919] A key portion of the Mishna dealing with crime and punishment.
  • Two Bodhisattvas from Sri Lanka
    • According to tradition, Buddhism arrived in Sri Lanka around the middle of the 3rd century B.C.E. and it was soon the dominant religious force on the island, as it is today.
  • Unbeaten Tracks in Japan
    • Derived from the 1911 John Murray edition. An account of travels in the interior including visits to the aborigines of Yezo and the shrine of Nikko. Appears to be a missionary perspective on Japan from the 1900s, which includes outsider descriptions of various religious and cultural practices.
  • Unitarian Universalism
    • Unitarianism Universalism is an unusual religious organization. Unlike most religions in North America, it does not require its adherents to adhere to a specific set of beliefs.
  • Using Scripture for Character
    • Verses and information on teaching children about strength, beauty, church/friends, future rewards and prayer
  • Using Scripture for Comfort
    • Verses and information on teaching children about hope, loneliness, fear, joy, renewal, anger, and healing
  • Using Scripture for Correction
    • Verses and information on teaching children about love and the Holy Spirit
  • Using Scripture for Sin – Purity
    • Verses and information on teaching children about Sin, Salvation and Purity
  • Various Beliefs About the Origins & Development of Species, the Earth itself, & the Rest of the Universe
    • The conflicts among evolution, intelligent design, and creation science
  • Vedic Religion
  • Versions of Hindu History
    • To construct a reliable chronology of Hinduism is challenging
  • Virgin Birth
    • The virgin birth of Jesus: Fact or fable?
  • Water and Sanitation in Islam
    • Many of the principles of Islam call upon people to look after their health, to avoid health hazards and risks and to raise their standards of hygiene. This paper covers drinking-water, water and cleanliness, and bathing. By Abdul Fattah Al-Sheikh, 1996, World Health Organization.
  • What Can We Learn from Hinduism: Recovering the Mystical
    • by Marcus Braybrooke. A book written for Christians about understanding Hinduism.
  • What is Consciousness?
    • Perspectives on consciousness from philosophy, cognitive science, and neuroscience.
  • What is Shinto?
    • Jinja Shinto - Shinto Online Network Association
  • What Would God Be?
    • A look at why belief in god arose, the functions of such a being, and differences among beliefs.
  • Wicca: a Neopagan, Earth-centered religion
    • Wicca is the largest of the Neopagan religions. Wiccans have great reverence for the Earth and for their Goddess and her consort, the horned God. Topics include background information, relationships with other religions, terminology, and discrimination against Wiccans.
  • Women in Hinduism
  • Women in Hinduism
    • This is the Wikipedia's article on Women in Hinduism.
  • Women's Roles in Vedic Rituals
  • Works of John Calvin
    • This page indexes resources at this site relating to John Calvin.
  • World Religions Index Articles
    • Articles and comparison studies discussing the major world religions -- their various views on God, salvation and the afterlife. Written from a Christian perspective.
  • World Religions Index Personal Pages
    • Personal stories from people who have experienced a wide variety of world religions and religious philosophies.
  • Worship
    • What do different religions worship and how?
  • WorshipWeb
    • WorshipWeb is organized in interconnected modules about Unitarian Universalism, including words for worship, ideas for multigenerational, multicultural, young adult, and contemporary worship, and prayers.
  • Writers' Handbook
    • This book shows students how to use writing as a portal for thinking and learning and for communicating with the world. Its writing prompts and exercises encourage students not only to do a great deal of exploratory writing but also to gradually experience the rhetorical considerations of going public in a variety of genres and media.
  • Yom Kippur Journal
    • A list of articles about the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur, also known as the Day of Atonement, which is also the final day of the Jewish High Holy Days.
  • Yoruba Religion and Myth
    • The faiths of the Yoruba peoples of Western Nigeria vary significantly from one part of the region to another; the same deity may be male in one village and female in the next, or the characteristics of two gods may be embodied in a single deity in a neighboring region.
  • Zoroastrianism: An Ancient Religion Founded by Zarathushtra
    • Introductory materials on history, festivals, holy texts, and practices